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Compiling from source is probably the most effective way of installing Octave on your system. To do this you will require compilers for the following languages:
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#REDIRECT [[Building]]
 
 
* C
 
* C++ (ISO)
 
* Fortran
 
 
 
The best supported compilers for the job are the [http://gcc.gnu.org/ GNU Compiler Collection]. You will require at least GCC 4.3 or later, although GCC 4.4 or later is recommended.
 
 
 
To compile Octave, you will also need a recent version of GNU Make. You must have GNU Make to compile octave. Octave's Makefiles use features of GNU Make that are not present in other versions of make. GNU Make is very portable and easy to install.
 
 
 
=Introduction=
 
 
 
Building Octave can be as simple as downloading the source and running the following three commands in your Linux shell:
 
 
 
./configure
 
make
 
make install
 
 
 
However, Octave is a complex program with many dependencies. This page details each of the steps, some issues that may arise with each step and the dependencies that Octave either requires, or will use if available.
 
 
 
=Dependencies=
 
 
 
Octave is a fairly large program with many build dependencies.  You may be able to find pre-packaged versions of the dependencies distributed as part of your system, or you may have to build some or all of them yourself.
 
 
 
==Tips for Specific Systems==
 
 
 
The names of pre-compiled packages vary by system and do not always match exactly the names listed above.
 
 
 
You will usually need the development version of an external dependency so that you get the libraries and header files for building software, not just for running already compiled programs.  These packages typically have names that end with the suffix <nowiki>-dev</nowiki> or <nowiki>-devel</nowiki>.
 
 
 
On systems with <nowiki>apt-get</nowiki> (Debian, Ubuntu, etc.), you may be able to install most of the tools and external packages using a command similar to
 
 
 
  apt-get build-dep octave
 
 
 
The specific package name may be <nowiki>octave3.2</nowiki> or <nowiki>octave3.4</nowiki>, making the command
 
 
 
  apt-get build-dep octave3.2
 
 
 
for example). The set of required tools and external dependencies does not change frequently, so it is not important that the version match exactly, but you should use the most recent one available.
 
 
 
On systems with <nowiki>yum</nowiki> (Fedora, Red Hat, etc.), you may be able to install most of the tools and external packages using a command similar to
 
 
 
  yum-builddep octave
 
 
 
The <nowiki>yum-builddep</nowiki> utility is part of the <nowiki>yum-utils</nowiki> package.
 
 
 
For either type of system, the package name may include a version number. The set of required tools and external dependencies does not change frequently, so it is not important that the version exactly match the version you are installing, but you should use the most recent one available.
 
 
 
=== Build Tools ===
 
 
 
The following tools are required:
 
 
 
{| cellpadding="4" border="1" cellspacing="0"
 
!Tool
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|C++, C, and Fortran compilers
 
|The Octave sources are primarily written in C++, but some portions are also written in C and Fortran.  The Octave sources are intended to be portable.  Recent versions of the GNU compiler collection (GCC) should work ([http://gcc.gnu.org]).  If you use GCC, you should avoid mixing versions.  For example, be sure that you are not using the obsolete @code{g77} Fortran compiler with modern versions of gcc and g++.
 
|-
 
|GNU Make
 
|Tool for building software ([http://www.gnu.org/software/make]). Octave's build system requires GNU Make.  Other versions of Make will not work.  Fortunately, GNU Make is highly portable and easy to install.
 
|-
 
|AWK, sed, and other Unix utilities
 
|Basic Unix system utilities are required for building Octave.  All will be available with any modern Unix system and also on Windows with either Cygwin or MinGW and MSYS.
 
|}
 
 
 
Additionally, the following tools may be needed:
 
 
 
{| cellpadding="4" border="1" cellspacing="0"
 
!Tool
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|Bison
 
|Parser generator ([http://www.gnu.org/software/bison]). You will need Bison if you modify the oct-parse.yy source file or if you delete the files that are generated from it.
 
|-
 
|Flex
 
|Lexer analyzer ([http://www.gnu.org/software/flex]).  You will need Flex if you modify the lex.ll source file or if you delete the files that are generated from it.
 
|-
 
|Autoconf
 
|Package for software configuration ([http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf]).  Autoconf is required if
 
you modify Octave's configure.ac file or other files that it requires.
 
|-
 
|Automake
 
|Package for Makefile generation ([http://www.gnu.org/software/automake]). Automake is required if you modify Octave's Makefile.am files or other files that they depend on.
 
|-
 
|Libtool
 
|Package for building software libraries ([http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool]).  Libtool is required by Automake.
 
|}
 
 
 
=== External Packages ===
 
 
 
{| cellpadding="4" border="1" cellspacing="0"
 
!Library
 
!Status
 
!Debian Package Name
 
!Comments
 
|-
 
|A version of BLAS and LAPACK, e.g. Atlas
 
|Required
 
|libatlas-base-dev
 
|Basic Linear Algebra Subroutine library ([http://www.netlib.org/blas]).  Accelerated BLAS libraries such as ATLAS ([http://math-atlas.sourceforge.net]) are recommended for better performance.
 
|-
 
|arpack
 
|Recommended
 
|libarpack2-dev
 
|Library for the solution of large-scale eigenvalue problems ([http://forge.scilab.org/index.php/p/arpack-ng]).  ARPACK is required to provide the functions eigs and svds.
 
|-
 
|curl
 
|Recommended
 
|libcurl4-gnutls-dev
 
|Library for transferring data with URL syntax ([http://curl.haxx.se]).  cURL is required to provide the urlread and urlwrite functions and the ftp class.
 
|-
 
|fftw3
 
|Recommended
 
|fftw3-dev
 
|Library for computing discrete Fourier transforms ([http://www.fftw.org]).  FFTW3 is used to provide better performance for functions that compute discrete Fourier transforms (fft, ifft, fft2, etc.).
 
|-
 
|fltk
 
|Recommended
 
|libfltk1.1-dev
 
|Portable GUI toolkit ([http://www.fltk.org]).  FLTK is currently used to provide windows for Octave's OpenGL-based graphics functions.
 
|-
 
|fontconfig
 
|Recommended
 
|libfontconfig1-dev
 
|Library for configuring and customizing font access ([http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/fontconfig]).  Fontconfig is used to manage fonts for Octave's OpenGL-based graphics functions.
 
|-
 
|FreeType
 
|Recommended
 
|
 
|Portable font engine ([http://www.freetype.org]).  FreeType is used to perform font rendering for Octave's OpenGL-based graphics functions.
 
|-
 
|glpk
 
|Recommended
 
|libglpk-dev
 
|GNU Linear Programming Kit ([http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk]). GPLK is required for the function glpk.
 
|-
 
|gnuplot
 
|Recommended
 
|
 
|Interactive graphics program ([http://www.gnuplot.info]).  gnuplot is currently the default graphics renderer for Octave.
 
|-
 
|GraphicsMagick++
 
|Recommended
 
|libgraphicsmagick++1-dev
 
|Image processing library (@url{http://www.graphicsmagick.org}). GraphicsMagick++ is used to provide the imread and imwrite. functions.
 
|-
 
|hdf5
 
|Recommended
 
|libhdf5-mpich-dev
 
|Library for manipulating portable data files ([http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5]).  HDF5 is required for Octave's load and save commands to read and write HDF data files.
 
|-
 
|ncurses
 
|Recommended
 
|libncurses5-dev
 
|
 
|-
 
|OpenGL
 
|Recommended
 
|
 
|API for portable 2D and 3D graphics ([http://www.opengl.org]).  An OpenGL implementation is required to provide Octave's OpenGL-based graphics functions.  Octave's OpenGL-based graphics functions usually outperform the gnuplot-based graphics functions because plot data can be rendered directly instead of sending data and commands to gnuplot for interpretation and rendering.
 
|-
 
|PCRE
 
|Required
 
|libpcre3-dev
 
|The Perl Compatible Regular Expression library ([http://www.pcre.org]).
 
|-
 
|Qhull
 
|Recommended
 
|libqhull-dev
 
|Computational geometry library ([http://www.qhull.org]).  Qhull is required to provide the functions convhull, convhulln, delaunay, delaunay3, delaunayn, voronoi, and voronoin.
 
|-
 
|qrupdate
 
|Recommended
 
|
 
|QR factorization updating library ([http://sourceforge.net/projects/qrupdate]).  QRUPDATE is used to provide improved performance for the functions qrdelete, qrinsert, qrshift, and qrupdate.
 
|-
 
|readline
 
|Strongly <br> Reccomended
 
|libreadline5-dev
 
|If you wish to build Octave without GNU readline installed, you must use the --disable-readline option when running the configure script.
 
|-
 
|SuiteSparse
 
|Recommended
 
|libsuitesparse-dev
 
|Sparse matrix factorization library ([http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/SuiteSparse]). SuiteSparse is required to provide sparse matrix factorizations and solution of linear equations for sparse systems.
 
|-
 
|zlib
 
|Recommended
 
|zlib1g-dev
 
|Data compression library ([http://zlib.net]).  The zlib library is required for Octave's load and save commands to handle compressed data, including Matlab v5 MAT files.
 
|}
 
 
 
=Download=
 
 
 
Released source tarballs are available at http://www.octave.org/download.html. You will normally want to use one of those.
 
 
 
The download page also contains instructions to download the development sources. If you are using the development sources, be sure to type the following command before configuring:
 
 
 
./autogen.sh
 
 
 
This builds the configure scripts that Octave uses. This requires a number of tools which are not needed if you download an octave release, such as recent versions of autoconf/automake, and tools such as bison, flex, gperf, perl, and maybe others.
 
 
 
=Configure=
 
 
 
Before compiling you must first configure the build system by running the configure script.
 
 
 
./configure
 
 
 
The configure script will display information about missing packages or any other issues that arise during the configuration run.
 
 
 
Octave has many configure options. For a complete list, see
 
 
 
./configure --help
 
 
 
If you are building a personal version, you will want to install it into your home directory, or perhaps a subdirectory. Add the following to your configure line:
 
 
 
--prefix=$HOME/octave
 
 
 
Be sure the $HOME/octave/bin is on your path, or symlink the binaries therein to $HOME/bin.
 
 
 
==Troubleshooting==
 
 
 
1. If you just type ./configure, you may get this error:
 
 
 
configure: WARNING: in order to build octave, you must have a compatible
 
configure: WARNING: Fortran compiler or f2c installed and in your path.
 
configure: error: See the file INSTALL for more information.
 
 
 
This means that you don't have a fortran compiler on your system. You can either install a fortran compiler or re-install gcc with its optional build-in fortran compiler g77. To do this you must download the g77 components of gcc before you build gcc. Alternatively there are various f2c programs you could install which convert fortran to C.
 
 
 
2. If you get this warning:
 
 
 
configure: WARNING: "FTGL headers not found. Native renderer will not have on-screen text"
 
configure: WARNING:
 
configure: WARNING: I didn't find the necessary libraries to compile native
 
configure: WARNING: graphics. It isn't necessary to have native graphics
 
configure: WARNING: but you will have to use gnuplot or you won't be able
 
configure: WARNING: to use any of Octave's plotting commands
 
 
 
It may help to call configure with CPPFLAGS=-I/usr/include/freetype2, please see [http://www-old.cae.wisc.edu/pipermail/help-octave/2008-August/010610.html Problems with FTGL building octave-3.1.51],[http://www-old.cae.wisc.edu/pipermail/octave-maintainers/2008-September/008620.html Building ftgl backend with current tip]. Note that from [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/rev/37afdd1d1bf8 changeset 8269] onward, this workaround should no longer be needed, please see [http://www-old.cae.wisc.edu/pipermail/octave-maintainers/2008-October/009154.html No FTGL, says configure script?]
 
 
 
=Build=
 
 
 
After running configure simply run
 
 
 
make
 
 
 
Note that the compilation of Octave can take some time.
 
 
 
==Troubleshooting==
 
 
 
Another possible error occurs at the 'make' stage:
 
 
 
/usr/include/c++/3.3.1/bits/basic_string.h:228: undefined reference to
 
    `std::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> >::_S_empty_rep_storage'
 
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
 
make[2]: *** [octave] Error 1
 
 
 
This has something to do with the gcc configuration. Try compiling the following program using g++:
 
 
 
#include <string>
 
#include <iostream>
 
using namespace std;
 
int main (void)
 
{
 
  basic_string <char>a = "thing one";
 
  string b = "thing two";
 
  cout << a.c_str() << endl;
 
  return (a == b);
 
}
 
 
 
If it fails, then your compiler needs to be set-up differently (how?). On my machine I can compile that test program but still get the error making Octave -- how do we solve this? It has something to do with the shared C++ library versions, check for /usr/lib/libstdc++.so.6 and make sure the right version of that library is being used by gcc -- especially if you had to reinstall gcc to build the fortran support. If it still doesn't work, consider installing from the RPMs instead of compiling from source.
 
 
 
=Test=
 
 
 
To run all tests, change to the octave directory and type
 
 
 
make check
 
 
 
This requires dejagnu.
 
 
 
To run a specific set of tests, change to the directory test/octave.test/<part> and type
 
 
 
runtest <part>.exp
 
 
 
To run your own tests use the [[RunInPlace]] shell script.
 
 
 
=Install=
 
 
 
Finally, to install Octave on your system run
 
 
 
make install
 
 
 
Alternatively, If you have checkinstall on your system issue
 
 
 
checkinstall -D
 
 
 
This will create a deb from the sources and register the installation with dpkg.
 
 
 
checkinstall -R
 
 
 
will create RPM package which you can install using your package manager in RPM based
 
distributions.
 
 
 
=System Specific Instructions=
 
 
 
*[[PaulKienzleIrixConf|SGI/IRIX]]
 
*[[Octave for Mac|Mac OS X]]
 
*[[Octave_for_GNU_Linux:_Binary_Octave_packages_for_GNU_Linux#Debian_Development_Sources|Debian]]
 
 
 
=Distributed building=
 
 
 
==Requirements==
 
 
 
The following seems to be out of date for my Ubuntu setup.  My suggestion would be to look
 
at the latest info for distcc and follow the instructions from there. Make sure the different
 
machines have the same software.  DAS
 
 
 
 
 
distcc
 
ccache
 
 
 
Install distcc on all machines taking part in the compilation. List them in <nowiki>~/.distcc/hosts</nowiki>:
 
 
 
localhost
 
pc1.mynet.org
 
pc2.mynet.org
 
 
 
The first machines listed are given higher priority -- place 'localhost' as you see fit.
 
 
 
Set the environment variables CCACHE_PREFIX, CXX and CC:
 
 
 
export CCACHE_PREFIX="distcc"
 
export CXX="ccache g++"
 
export CC="ccache gcc"
 
./configure <options>
 
 
 
Compile using the <nowiki>-j<simultaneous-jobs></nowiki> flag, two jobs per CPU available, i.e. for 5 machines
 
 
 
make -j10
 

Latest revision as of 05:37, 2 June 2015

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