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* ''This article addresses the [[:Category:Installation|installation]] and [[Building]] of GNU Octave on Debian, and Debian-based distributions such as Ubuntu.''
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For Debian, and Debian based distributions such as Ubuntu, specific solutions.  
  
Binary packages for GNU Octave and many [[Octave Forge]] packages are provided by all versions of Debian and Ubuntu. These are the most well-tested binaries available and should work best for most users. To install them, run:
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== Pre-compiled binaries ==
 +
 
 +
=== Distribution repositories ===
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 +
Binary packages for Octave and many Octave-Forge packages are provided by all versions of Debian and Ubuntu. These are the most well-tested binaries available and should work best for most users.
  
 
  sudo apt-get install octave
 
  sudo apt-get install octave
  
In Debian and Ubuntu the "complete" GNU Octave software is split over multiple packages. To obtain the complete features of Octave, install additionally
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Aside the {{codeline|octave}} package that installs GNU Octave, other pieces of it are split over multiple packages. These are {{codeline|octave-doc}}, {{codeline|octave-info}}, and {{codeline|octave-htmldoc}} for the documentation, {{codeline|liboctave-dev}} for the octave development library and required to install some Octave Forge packages, and {{codeline|octave-dbg}} for the debugging symbols.
 
 
* {{codeline|octave-doc}}, {{codeline|octave-info}}, and {{codeline|octave-htmldoc}} for the documentation;
 
* {{codeline|liboctave-dev}} for the octave development header files and mkoctfile (required to install Octave Forge packages); and
 
* {{codeline|octave-dbg}} for the debugging symbols.
 
  
Many Octave packages are also distributed by Debian and Ubuntu.  These are tested to work the best with the respective Octave version. Install them via:
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For Debian stable users, there may also be newer packages available in backports, so don't forget to check there.
  
sudo apt-get install octave-control octave-image octave-io octave-optim octave-signal octave-statistics
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=== Octave's Personal Package Archive (PPA) ===
  
Up to 2018, the [https://launchpad.net/~octave GNU Octave Team] on Launchpad actively maintained a PPA providing more up to date packages of Octave.  These are backported from Debian unstable and are still useful for older Ubuntu installations. To set up your system to install these packages, run:
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However, for some Ubuntu releases the octave packages are old (Debian Squeeze and Ubuntu 12.04 or older only have Octave version 3.2).  The [https://launchpad.net/~octave GNU Octave Team] on Launchpad maintain a PPA providing a binary packages of the latest stable versions of Octave for all versions of Ubuntu. To set up your system to install these packages
  
 
  sudo apt-add-repository ppa:octave/stable
 
  sudo apt-add-repository ppa:octave/stable
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  sudo apt-get install octave
 
  sudo apt-get install octave
  
== Building Octave ==
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== Compiling from source ==
 
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The only ''tricky'' part is to install the dependencies. Once that is solved, installing from source should be as easy as {{Codeline|./configure && make && make install}}. See the manual for the [http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/Running-Configure-and-Make.html configure options].
: ''For general build instructions, see [[Building]].''
 
  
The ''only'' tricky part is to install the Octave build dependencies.  Once that is solved, one can easily follow the [[Building|general build instructions]].  See [[#Configuration|below]] for some Debian and Ubuntu specific configuration options.
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=== HDF5 issue ===
 +
With new Debian versions you may get the following when building from source:
  
=== Install dependencies ===
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{{warning|HDF5 library not found.  Octave will not be able to save or load HDF5 data files.}}
  
Note that different Debian and Ubuntu versions may have slightly different package names but their differences should be pretty small, mostly limited to version numbers.
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The problem is that there are multiple versions of the hdf5 package.  Octave was written with the serial version in mind but it is likely to work with the others (OpenMPI and Mpich). Due to the naming scheme done in Debian, it is required to specify the location of the libraries. See bug {{bug|38928}} for details but basically, use the following when running configure:
  
==== The easy way (but likely incorrect) ====
+
./configure --with-hdf5-includedir=/usr/include/hdf5/serial/ --with-hdf5-libdir=/usr/lib/$(dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_MULTIARCH)/hdf5/serial/
  
This approach is ''only'' suitable if you are building from source the ''same'' version that your Linux distribution already has packaged.
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=== Dependencies ===
 +
{{Note|different Debian and Ubuntu versions may have slightly different package names but their differences should be pretty small, mostly limited to version numbers.}}
  
 +
==== The easy way (but possibly incomplete) ====
 
The easy way to install ''most'' of the necessary dependencies is to {{Codeline|sudo apt-get build-dep octave}}. This will install all packages necessary to build and prepare a Debian package for the octave version available on your system repositories. However:
 
The easy way to install ''most'' of the necessary dependencies is to {{Codeline|sudo apt-get build-dep octave}}. This will install all packages necessary to build and prepare a Debian package for the octave version available on your system repositories. However:
 
* will install unnecessary packages related to the building of a Debian package;
 
* will install unnecessary packages related to the building of a Debian package;
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* may install packages that are no longer octave dependencies.
 
* may install packages that are no longer octave dependencies.
  
==== The right way ====
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==== The even easier way ====
  
The right way is to install all the dependencies listed on the [[Building#Dependencies|Building]] wiki page. One can either search for the respective packages manually on
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The [http://wiki.octave.org/MXE MXE-octave] package provides a way to compile Octave for different platforms. Dependencies and certain flags are handled automatically.
  
* https://packages.debian.org
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==== The right way ====
* https://packages.ubuntu.com
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The best way is to select and install all the dependencies as listed in the {{Path|INSTALL.OCTAVE}} file. The following are their package names in Debian repositories (they will have their own dependencies which your package maintainer will solve automatically).
 
 
or, for the sake of convenience, use some "one-liner" to install them:
 
 
 
* '''Ubuntu 19.10'''
 
 
 
:<pre>sudo apt-get install gcc g++ gfortran make libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev libarpack2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev epstool libfftw3-dev fig2dev libfltk1.3-dev libfontconfig1-dev libfreetype6-dev libgl2ps-dev libglpk-dev libreadline-dev gnuplot-x11 libgraphicsmagick++1-dev libhdf5-dev openjdk-8-jdk libsndfile1-dev llvm-dev lpr texinfo libgl1-mesa-dev libosmesa6-dev pstoedit portaudio19-dev libqhull-dev libqrupdate-dev libqscintilla2-qt4-dev libsuitesparse-dev texlive libxft-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar qtbase5-dev qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libqscintilla2-qt5-dev libsundials-dev</pre>
 
 
 
* '''Ubuntu 18.04 (LTS)'''
 
 
 
:<pre>sudo apt-get install gcc g++ gfortran make libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev libarpack2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev epstool libfftw3-dev transfig libfltk1.3-dev libfontconfig1-dev libfreetype6-dev libgl2ps-dev libglpk-dev libreadline-dev gnuplot-x11 libgraphicsmagick++1-dev libhdf5-serial-dev openjdk-8-jdk libsndfile1-dev llvm-dev lpr texinfo libgl1-mesa-dev libosmesa6-dev pstoedit portaudio19-dev libqhull-dev libqrupdate-dev libqscintilla2-dev libsuitesparse-dev texlive texlive-generic-recommended libxft-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar qtbase5-dev qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libqscintilla2-qt5-dev</pre>
 
 
 
* '''Ubuntu 16.04 (LTS)'''
 
 
 
:<pre>sudo apt-get install gcc g++ gfortran make libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev libarpack2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev epstool libfftw3-dev transfig libfltk1.3-dev libfontconfig1-dev libfreetype6-dev libgl2ps-dev libglpk-dev libreadline-dev gnuplot-x11 libgraphicsmagick++1-dev libhdf5-serial-dev openjdk-8-jdk libsndfile1-dev llvm-dev lpr texinfo libgl1-mesa-dev libosmesa6-dev pstoedit portaudio19-dev libqhull-dev libqrupdate-dev libqscintilla2-dev libqt4-dev libqtcore4 libqtwebkit4 libqt4-network libqtgui4 libqt4-opengl-dev libsuitesparse-dev texlive libxft-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar</pre>
 
 
 
* '''Debian 9'''
 
 
 
:<pre>sudo apt-get install gcc g++ gfortran make libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev libarpack2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev epstool libfftw3-dev transfig libfltk1.3-dev libfontconfig1-dev libfreetype6-dev libgl2ps-dev libglpk-dev libreadline-dev gnuplot libgraphicsmagick++1-dev libhdf5-serial-dev openjdk-8-jdk libsndfile1-dev llvm-dev texinfo libgl1-mesa-dev libosmesa6-dev pstoedit portaudio19-dev libjack-jackd2-dev libqhull-dev libqrupdate-dev libqscintilla2-dev libqt4-dev libqtcore4 libqtwebkit4 libqt4-network libqtgui4 libqt4-opengl-dev libsuitesparse-dev texlive libxft-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar</pre>
 
 
 
* '''Debian 8'''
 
 
 
:<pre>sudo apt-get install gcc g++ gfortran make libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev libarpack2-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev epstool libfftw3-dev transfig libfltk1.3-dev libfontconfig1-dev libfreetype6-dev libgl2ps-dev libglpk-dev libreadline-dev gnuplot libgraphicsmagick++1-dev libhdf5-serial-dev openjdk-7-jdk libsndfile1-dev llvm-dev lpr texinfo libgl1-mesa-dev libosmesa6-dev pstoedit portaudio19-dev libqhull-dev libqrupdate-dev libqscintilla2-dev libqt4-dev libqtcore4 libqtwebkit4 libqt4-network libqtgui4 libqt4-opengl-dev libsuitesparse-dev texlive libxft-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar</pre>
 
 
 
 
 
{{Warning|<ul><li>The Debian repositoriy has several libraries for dealing with HDF data files. The recommended is {{Codeline|libhdf5-serial-dev}}. However, the {{Forge|msh|msh package}} requires [http://www.geuz.org/gmsh/ gmsh] which is incompatible with it.</li>
 
<li>The GraphicsMagick++ library (libgraphicsmagick++1-dev) on the Debian repositories was compiled with quantum 8 which limits reading images to 8 bit. The solution is to recompile [[GraphicsMagick]] with quantum 16 or 32 before building Octave.</li>
 
<li>For debian9 using openjdk-9-jdk (even providing  {{Codeline|JAVA_HOME}}) could *not* be used for the java interface! Use openjdk-8-jdk instead.</li>
 
<li>When configure decides to use QT5 instead of QT4, make might fail because lrelease is missing (see [https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?50580 bug 50580]).  It can be fixed by installing {{Codeline|qttools5-dev-tools}}</li>
 
</ul>}}
 
 
 
=== Configuration ===
 
 
 
Some Debian and Ubuntu specific configure tweaks are listed below:
 
 
 
==== Java ====
 
 
 
Autodetection for Java should work well on Debian-based systems. A specific Java version can be specified by passing {{codeline|JAVA_HOME}} to configure, for example
 
 
 
./configure JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64
 
 
 
==== HDF5 ====
 
 
 
On older versions of Debian and Ubuntu, you may get the following warning when building an older version of Octave from source:
 
 
 
HDF5 library not found.  Octave will not be able to save or load HDF5 data files.
 
 
 
The problem is that there are multiple versions of the hdf5 package.  Octave was written with the serial version in mind but it is likely to work with the others (OpenMPI and Mpich). Due to the naming scheme done in Debian, it may be required to specify the location of the libraries.  See bug {{bug|38928}} for details (starting with comment #19) but basically, use the following when running configure:
 
 
 
./configure --with-hdf5-includedir=/usr/include/hdf5/serial --with-hdf5-libdir=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/hdf5/serial
 
 
 
On older versions of Debian and Ubuntu, where only one flavor of the HDF5 library could be installed at a time, you may need to build Octave against one of the MPI-enabled flavors. On these older systems, configuring Octave like this may work:
 
  
./configure CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/include/mpi -DMPICH_SKIP_MPICXX -DOMPI_SKIP_MPICXX"
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{{Warning|Debian repositories has several libraries for dealing with HDF data files. The recommended is {{Codeline|libhdf5-serial-dev}}. However, the {{Forge|msh|msh package}} requires [http://www.geuz.org/gmsh/ gmsh] which is incompatible with it.}}
 +
{{Warning|the GraphicsMagick++ library (libgraphicsmagick++-dev) on the Debian repositories was compiled with quantum 8 which limits reading images to 8 bit. The solution is to recompile [[GraphicsMagick]] with quantum
 +
16 or 32 before building Octave.}}
 +
{{Note|if only the native graphics toolkit will be used, gnuplot will not be necessary.}}
  
==== Sundials ====
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* build tools
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:<pre>g++ gcc gfortran make</pre>
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* external packages
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:<pre>libblas-dev liblapack-dev libpcre3-dev</pre>
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* optional but ''strongly'' recommended. Check the [http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/External-Packages.html Octave manual] for more information on them. Packages marked with * are virtual packages (you'll have to pick one of the displayed versions).
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:{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
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! Dependency        !! Debian Squeeze(Old Stable)          !! Ubuntu 13.10
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|-
 +
| ARPACK            || libarpack2-dev                      || libarpack2-dev
 +
|-
 +
| cURL              || libcurl4-gnutls-dev                  || libcurl4-gnutls-dev
 +
|-
 +
| epstool          || epstool                              || epstool
 +
|-
 +
| FFTW3            || libfftw3-dev                        || libfftw3-dev
 +
|-
 +
| fig2dev          || transfig                            || transfig
 +
|-
 +
| FLTK              || libfltk-dev *                        || libfltk-dev *
 +
|-
 +
| fontconfig        || libfontconfig1-dev                  || libfontconfig1-dev
 +
|-
 +
| FreeType          || libfreetype6-dev                    || libfreetype6-dev
 +
|-
 +
| gl2ps            || libgl2ps-dev                        || libgl2ps-dev
 +
|-
 +
| GLPK              || libglpk-dev                          || libglpk-dev
 +
|-
 +
| GNU Readline      || libreadline-dev                      || libreadline-dev
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|-
 +
| gnuplot          || gnuplot                              || gnuplot
 +
|-
 +
| GraphicsMagick++  || libgraphicsmagick++-dev              || libgraphicsmagick++-dev
 +
|-
 +
| HDF5              || libhdf5-serial-dev                  || libhdf5-serial-dev
 +
|-
 +
| Java JDK          || openjdk-7-jdk                        || openjdk-7-jdk
 +
|-
 +
| LLVM              || llvm-dev *                          || llvm-dev *
 +
|-
 +
| lpr              || lpr                                  || lpr
 +
|-
 +
| makeinfo          || texinfo                              || texinfo
 +
|-
 +
| OpenGL            || libgl-dev *                          || libgl-dev *
 +
|-
 +
| pstoedit          || pstoedit                            || pstoedit
 +
|-
 +
| Qhull            || libqhull-dev                        || libqhull-dev
 +
|-
 +
| QRUPDATE          || libqrupdate-dev                      || libqrupdate-dev
 +
|-
 +
| QScintilla        || libqscintilla2-dev                  || libqscintilla2-dev
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|-
 +
| Qt                || libqt4-dev libqtcore4 libqtwebkit4 libqt4-network libqtgui4 || libqt4-dev libqtcore4 libqtwebkit4 libqt4-network libqtgui4
 +
|-
 +
| SuiteSparse      || libsuitesparse-dev                  || libsuitesparse-dev
 +
|-
 +
| Xft              || libxft-dev                          || libxft-dev
 +
|-
 +
| zlib              || zlib1g-dev                          || zlib1g-dev
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
On recent Debian and Ubuntu releases whose Sundials version (in {{codeline|libsundials-dev}}) is 3.1, a configure flag needs to be passed for {{codeline|ode15i}} and {{codeline|ode15s}} to be compiled with support for sparse Jacobians (bug {{bug|55937}}), as follows:
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==== Building development version ====
 +
If you are building development versions, you'll require some more packages as listed on {{Path|etc/HACKING}} and {{Path|INSTALL}}. Many of them will already be installed on your system.
  
./configure CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/include/suitesparse"
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===== development tools =====
 +
<pre>autoconf automake bison flex gperf gzip icoutils librsvg2-bin libtool perl rsync tar</pre>
  
== See also ==
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===== extra dependencies for the development version =====
  
* [[MXE]] -- a more customized Octave build including many self-compiled tools.
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:{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Dependency        !! Debian Wheezy (stable)  !! Debian Jessie (testing)
 +
|-
 +
| PortAudio        || portaudio19-dev        || portaudio19-dev
 +
|-
 +
| OSMesa            || [[Build libosmesa]]     || 9.0.0
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
[[Category:Building]]
 
[[Category:Building]]
 
[[Category:Installation]]
 
[[Category:Installation]]
[[Category:GNU/Linux]]
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[[Category:Debian]]

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