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~~This ~~=Where do I get additional help?= If you can't find an answer to your question in this FAQ ~~is intended to supplement~~, ~~not replace~~wiki, or in the ~~Octave ~~[http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter manual] ([http://www.octave.org/octave.pdf PDF]) you can: * Search for an answer in our [https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/help-octave/ mailing list archives]* Contact our user community using our [https://lists.gnu. ~~Before posting a question to the ~~org/mailman/listinfo/help-octave help@octave.org mailing list~~, you should first check ~~] (feel free to subscribe to ~~see if the topic is covered ~~this mailing list)* Contact our user community using our [https://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=octave IRC chat room <code>#octave</code> in ~~the manual.~~Freenode] <div class="tocinline">__TOC__</div>
~~The ~~[https://octave.sourceforge.io/ Octave ~~distribution includes ~~Forge] is a ~~650+ page Texinfo manual. Access ~~collection of [[packages]] for GNU Octave, something similar to the ~~complete text of ~~Matlab toolboxes. When talking about the ~~manual is available via the doc command ~~two projects at the same time, GNU Octave ~~prompt~~is usually referred to as Octave core (or just "core"). Octave Forge also serves as a test bed for code that may eventually end up in the core, and distributes binaries for systems with a lack of developers tools (mainly Windows).
~~The GNU Project ~~Octave's name has nothing to do with music. It is named after [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octave_Levenspiel Octave Levenspiel], a former professor of John who was ~~launched in 1984 ~~famous for his ability to ~~develop ~~do quick back-of-the-envelope calculations. You can hear John pronounce the name "Octave" a ~~complete Unix-like operating system which is free software~~few times [http: //videolectures.net/mloss08_eaton_oct/ in this video]. We hope that GNU Octave will help perform computations with the ~~GNU system~~same ease as Dr. Levenspiel.
~~Octave became GNU Octave in 1997 (beginning with version 2.0.6). This meant agreeing to consider Octave a part of the GNU Project and support the efforts of the FSF. A big part of this effort is to adhere to the ~~The [~~http~~https://www.~~gnu~~fsf.org/~~prep/standards/standards.html GNU coding standards] and to benefit from GNU's infrastructure ~~Free Software Foundation (~~e.g. [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/ code hosting] and [http://bugs.octave.org bug tracking]~~FSF)~~. Additionally, Octave receives [https://my.fsf.org/donate/working-together/octave sponsorship~~] ~~from ~~is the ~~FSF's Working Together fund. However, Octave is not and has never been developed by ~~principal organizational sponsor of the ~~FSF~~GNU Project.
~~For more information about ~~Octave became GNU Octave in 1997 (beginning with [[Release History|version 2.0.6]]). This meant agreeing to consider Octave a part of the GNU ~~project, see http~~Project and support the efforts of the FSF. A big part of this effort is to adhere to the [https://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/standards.html GNU coding standards] and to benefit from GNU's infrastructure (e.g. [https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/ code hosting] and [http://bugs.octave.org bug tracking]). Additionally, Octave receives [https://my.fsf.org/donate/working-together/octave sponsorship] from the FSF's Working Together fund. However, Octave is not and has never been developed by the FSF.
~~In general, ~~Octave is free software and does not legally bind you ~~will find the latest version on http://www~~to cite it.~~octave.org/download.html. It is recommended to use the stable version ~~ However, we have invested a lot of ~~octave for general use~~time and effort in creating GNU Octave, and ~~the development version ~~we would appreciate if you would cite if you ~~want the latest features and are willing to tolerate instability~~used. To cite GNU Octave in publications use:
~~A list of user~~ John W. Eaton, David Bateman, Søren Hauberg, Rik Wehbring ({{Release Year}}). GNU Octave version {{Release}} manual: a high-~~visible changes since the last release is available in the file NEWS~~level interactive language for numerical computations. ~~The file ChangeLog in the source distribution contains a more detailed record of changes made since the last release~~ URL https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/v{{Release}}/
~~==On what platforms does Octave run?==~~A [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BibTeX BibTeX] entry for [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaTeX LaTeX] users is:
~~Two and three dimensional plotting is fully supported using gnuplot and an experimental OpenGL backend~~Run {{manual|citation}} at the Octave prompt for details on how to best cite the Octave version you are running. Certain Octave packages also have recommended citations in which case use <code>citation package_name</code>.
~~The underlying numerical solvers ~~Note that there are ~~currently standard Fortran ones like LAPACK, LINPACK, ODEPACK, ~~two reasons for citing the ~~BLAS, etc~~software used.~~, packaged in a library of C++ classes~~ One is giving recognition to the work done by others which we already addressed. ~~If possible, the Fortran subroutines are compiled with ~~ The other is giving details on the system~~'s Fortran compiler~~used so that experiments can be replicated. For this, you should cite the version of Octave and ~~called directly from ~~all packages used (you can get this information using the ~~C++ functions~~<code>ver</code> command), as well as any details of your setup as part of your Methods. ~~If that's not possible~~ In addition, you ~~can still compile Octave if ~~should make your source available. See [http://software.ac.uk/so-exactly-what-software-did-you ~~have the free Fortran ~~-use How to ~~C translator f2c~~cite and describe software] for more details and an in depth discussion.
~~==How can I cite ~~Besides this wiki, the GNU Octave~~?==~~distribution includes a [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter 1000+ page Texinfo manual] ([http://www.octave.org/octave.pdf PDF]). Access to the complete text of the manual is available via the {{manual|doc}} command at the GNU Octave prompt. If you have problems using this manual, or find that some topic is not adequately explained, indexed, or cross-referenced, please report it on http://bugs.octave.org.
~~Pointing to http://www.octave.org is good, because that gives people ~~==How can I report a ~~direct way to find out more. If citation of a URL is not allowed by a publisher, or if you also want to point to a traditional reference, then you can cite the ~~bug in Octave ~~manual:~~?==
~~ @BOOK{eaton~~Please read our website http:~~2008,~~~~ author = "John W~~//www.octave.org/bugs.html. ~~Eaton, David Bateman, and Søren Hauberg",~~~~ title = "GNU Octave Manual Version 3",~~~~ publisher = "Network Theory Limited",~~~~ year = "2008",~~~~ isbn = "0-9546120-6-X"~~~~ }~~
~~A program ~~* Code that '''embeds the Octave interpreter ''' (e.g., by calling the ~~"~~<code>octave_main~~" ~~</code> function), or that calls functions from Octave's libraries (e.g., liboctinterp, liboctave, or libcruft) is considered a derivative work of Octave and therefore must be released under terms that are compatible with the GPL.
~~The 3~~According to the Matlab Central [https://www.~~4~~mathworks.~~N series has enough new features to justify a minor version number change~~com/matlabcentral/termsofuse. ~~The full details are in ~~html Terms of Use] (Last updated: 10-Aug-2016), all submitted code is licensed under the ~~NEWS file~~[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_licenses BSD license] by default (cf. § 5 [https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/termsofuse.html Terms of Use]), but ~~in brief 3.4.N series brings~~it is clearly stated that:
~~* ARPACK now distributed ~~{{Quote|text=Content submitted to File Exchange may only be used with ~~Octave~~~~* Indexing optimisations~~~~* FTP object using libcurl~~~~* Better consistency with ismatrix, issquare, and issymetric~~~~* Function handles aware of overloaded functions~~~~* More efficient matrix division by making ~~MathWorks products. | |§ 2(a ~~single LAPACK call~~~~* Other optimisations in matrix operations~~~~* bsxfun optimised for basic arithmetic functions~~~~* Matlab-style ignoring of output arguments using <tt>~<~~)(iii) [https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/~~tt>~~~~* Many optimisations ~~termsofuse.html Terms of ~~the accumarray function~~~~* Sparse matrix indexing has been rewritten for speed~~~~* Configuration pseudo-variables like page_screen_output accept a "local" option argument to limit their scope to function scope~~~~* The pkg command now accepts a -forge option to pull packages directly from Octave-forge~~~~* Several dlmread improvements~~~~* Octave now uses gnulib for better cross-platform compatibility~~Use]}}
~~Here are some features ~~That does not apply to GNU Octave, therefore the usage is in general prohibited. It should suffice — although interpretations of this vary — to contact the author directly to send you the code personally (maybe released under a free license), or download the code from the author's own website, if available. [[Asking_for_package_to_be_released_under_GPL:_examples|Some examples of letters/email sent to authors for that ~~have been around since 3.2~~purpose]].~~N~~
~~* integer types~~~~* fixed point arithmetic~~~~* sparse matrices~~~~* linear programming code based on GLPK~~~~* 64-bit compilation support~~~~* gzipped files and stream and consequently support of Matlab v7 files~~~~* better support for both msvc and mingw~~~~* a fully compatible MEX interface~~~~* many many other minor features and compatibility changes~~~~* an experimental OpenGL graphics toolkit to replace gnuplot~~~~* object orient programming~~~~* block comments~~~~* imwrite and imread (based on the GraphicsMagick library)~~~~* Lazy transpose <br/> Special treatment in the parser of things like "a' * b", where the transpose is never explicitly formed but a flag is rather passed to the underlying LAPACK code.~~~~* Single precision type~~~~* Improved array indexing <br/> The underlying code used for indexing of arrays has been completely rewritten and so the indexing of arrays is now significantly faster.~~=Installation=
~~Here are some older features that have been around since 2.1.N:~~==How can I install Octave on Windows?==
~~* NDArrays~~~~* cells~~:''See: [[Octave for Microsoft Windows]]''
~~The 3.5.N series is the current development release and will become a 3.6.N release in the future. This series brings the following new features:~~==How can I install Octave on macOS?==
~~* Perl compatible regular expressions~~~~* a profiler~~~~* broadcasting enabled ~~:''See: [[Octave for ~~all built-in binary elementwise operators~~~~=What documentation exists for Octave?=~~macOS]]''
~~Besides the current wiki, there are other important sources of documentation and help for ~~==How can I install Octave~~.~~on GNU/Linux?==
~~==What documentation exists ~~:''See: [[Octave for ~~Octave?==~~GNU/Linux]]''
~~The ~~==How can I install Octave ~~distribution includes a 650+ page manual that ~~on Android / what is ~~also distributed under the terms of ~~this Octave app in the ~~GNU GPL. It is available on the web at http://www.octave.org/docs.html and you will also find there instructions on how to order a paper version.~~Google Play store?==
~~The complete text of the ~~There is an '''unofficial''' Octave ~~manual is also ~~app available ~~using the GNU Info system via the GNU Emacs, info, or xinfo programs, or by using the <tt>doc</tt> command to start the GNU info browser directly from ~~for Android in the Google Play store. Please see [[Octave ~~prompt~~for Android]] for more information.
~~If you have problems using this documentation, or find that some topic is not adequately explained, indexed, or cross-referenced, please report it ~~==How can I install Octave on ~~http://bugs.octave.org.~~platform X?==
~~==Getting additional help==~~Octave currently runs on [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]], [[Octave for macOS|macOS]], and [[Octave for Microsoft Windows|Windows]]. It should be possible to make Octave work on other systems as well. If you are interested in porting Octave to other systems, please contact the maintainers development mailing list [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/octave-maintainers maintainers@octave.org].
~~If you can't find an answer to your question, the help@octave.org mailing list is available for questions related to using, installing, and porting ~~==What Octave ~~that are not adequately answered by the Octave manual or by this document.~~version should I use?==
~~==User community==~~For general use, it is recommended to use the latest stable version of Octave (currently {{Release}}), available from http://www.octave.org/download.html. For development and bleeding-edge features one can obtain the development source code from the Mercurial repository https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/graph/.
~~To subscribe to ~~The used version of Octave is available via the {{manual|ver}} command and a list~~, go to http://www.octave.org/archive.html and follow ~~of user-visible changes since the ~~link to ~~last release is available via the ~~subscription page for ~~{{manual|news}} command at the ~~list~~GNU Octave prompt.
~~Please do not send requests to be added or removed from the mailing list, or other administrative trivia to the list itself.~~==On what platforms does Octave run?==
~~An archive of old postings ~~Octave runs on any platform you can compile it on. Binary distributions exist for [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]], [[Octave for macOS|macOS]], and [[Octave for Microsoft Windows|Windows]]. To work fully functional, Octave requires the used platform to support the ~~help-octave mailing list is maintained on ~~underlying numerical libraries like [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_Linear_Algebra_Subprograms BLAS], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAPACK LAPACK], [http://www.~~octave~~suitesparse.com SuiteSparse], etc., and for plotting [https://www.opengl.org/~~archive~~OpenGL] or [http://www.gnuplot.~~html~~info/ gnuplot].
~~You will also find some user advice and ~~==How can I obtain Octave's source code ~~spread over the web. Good starting points are the Octave Wiki http://wiki.octave.org and Octave-Forge http://octave.sourceforge.net~~?==
~~We also have [http~~The latest version of the Octave source code (and older versions) is available from:~~//www.octave.org/chat.html an IRC chat room].~~
~~==I think I have found a bug in Octave~~* https://www.~~==~~octave.org/download.html* https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/octave/
~~“I think I have found a bug in ~~Since Octaveis distributed under the terms of the GPL, ~~but I'm not sure~~you can get Octave from a friend who has a copy. ~~How do I know, and who should I tell?”~~
~~First, see the section [http://www.octave.org/bugs.html on bugs and bug reports in the ~~==How can I build Octave ~~manual]. When you report a bug, make sure to describe the type of computer you are using, the version of the operating system it is running, and ~~from the ~~version of Octave that you are using. Also provide enough ~~source code ~~and configuration details of your operating system so that the Octave maintainers can duplicate your bug.~~?==
~~=How can I obtain ~~To use Octave~~?=~~it is usually not required to build it from it's source code. Binary distributions exist for [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]], [[Octave for macOS|macOS]], and [[Octave for Microsoft Windows|Windows]].
~~==Source ~~If you have reasons to build Octave from the source code~~==~~, see [[Building]] for more information.
~~Source code is available on the ~~==What do I need to build Octave ~~development site, where you are sure to get ~~from the ~~latest version.~~source code?==
~~* http://www~~For a list of build dependencies see [[Building]].~~octave.org/download.html~~~~* ftp://ftp.octave.org/pub/octave/~~
~~Since Octave is distributed under the terms of the GPL, you can get ~~==Do I need GCC to build Octave ~~from a friend who has a copy, or ~~from the ~~Octave website.~~source code?==
~~==Pre~~No. The development is done primarily with [https://gcc.gnu.org/ GCC], so you may hit some incompatibilities. Octave is intended to be portable to any standard conforming compiler (for example [https://clang.llvm.org/ clang] is know to work as well). If you have difficulties that you think are bugs, please report them to the [http://bugs.octave.org bug tracker], or ask for help on the [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-~~compiled binary packages==~~octave help@octave.org mailing list].
~~The ~~=What's new in Octave ~~project does not distribute binary packages, but other projects do. For an up-to-date listing of packagers, see:~~?=
~~* http://www~~Each new Octave release introduces many new features.~~octave.org~~ A complete list of user visible changes can be seen by running <code>news</~~download~~code> at the Octave prompt.~~html~~~~* [[Build From Source]]~~ The following changes are a distilled list of the major changes:
~~As ~~==What's new in the next version of ~~today, ~~Octave ~~binaries are available at least on Debian, Ubuntu, RedHat, Suse and Fedora GNU/Linuxen, Mac OS X, Windows' 98, 2000 and XP, Vista, and 7.~~?==
~~==How do I get a copy of Octave for (some other platform)?==~~See the [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/tip/NEWS NEWS file] on the development branch.
~~Octave currently runs on Unix-like systems, Mac OS X, and Windows~~==What's new in version series 4. ~~It should be possible to make Octave work on other systems as well~~0. ~~If you are interested in porting ~~X of Octave ~~to other systems, please contact [mailto:maintainers@octave.org the maintainers' mailing list].~~==
~~=Installation Issues and Problems= ~~See the complete user-visible changes on the [https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS-4.0.html NEWS file].
~~Octave 3~~* First official release of the GUI.~~4 requires approximately 1~~* Release of official windows binaries.~~3 GB of disk storage to unpack and compile from source (considerably less if you don't compile ~~* Experimental support for [[classdef]].* OpenGL graphics with ~~debugging symbols)~~Qt widgets. ~~Once installed~~* Several functions for reading, writing, ~~Octave requires approximately 355 MB ~~and recording of ~~disk space (again, considerably less if you don't compile with debugging symbols, approximately 50 MB)~~audio.
~~To compile Octave, you will need a recent version of GNU Make~~See the complete user-visible changes on the [https://www. ~~You will also need GCC 4~~gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS-3 ~~or later, although GCC 4~~.~~4 or later is recommended~~8.html NEWS file].
~~'''You must have GNU Make to compile octave'''~~* Experimental GUI interface. * OpenGL graphics with fltk widgets.* Support for nested functions.* Support for java packages in Octave~~'s Makefiles use features of GNU Make that are not present in other versions of make~~core. ~~GNU Make is very portable ~~* Reading and ~~easy to install~~writing of image files vastly extended.
~~Yes, but development is done primarily with GCC, so you may hit some incompatibilities. Octave is intended to be portable to any standard conforming compiler. If you have difficulties that you think are bugs, please report them to ~~See the complete user-visible changes on the ~~http~~[https://~~bugs~~www.~~octave~~gnu.org ~~bug tracker, or ask for help on the [mailto:help@~~/software/octave/NEWS-3.~~org mailing list~~6.html NEWS file].
~~==What features are unique to Octave?==~~See the complete user-visible changes on the [https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS-3.4.html NEWS file].
~~Although most ~~* Many improvements to native OpenGL plotting* ARPACK now distributed with Octave* Indexing optimizations* FTP objects* Function handles aware of overloaded functions* bsxfun optimized for basic arithmetic functions* Matlab-style ignoring of output arguments using {{Codeline|~}}* Many optimizations of the accumarray function* Sparse matrix indexing has been rewritten for speed* The pkg command now accepts a -forge option to pull packages directly from Octave ~~language will be familiar to Matlab users, it has some unique features of its own.~~Forge
~~ octave~~See the complete user-visible changes on the [https:~~1> function s = hello_string (to_who)~~~~ > ## Say hello~~~~ > if nargin<1, to_who = "World"; end~~~~ > s = ["Hello ",\~~~~ > to_who];~~~~ > endfunction~~~~ ~~//www.gnu.org/software/octave~~:~~/NEWS-3.2~~> hello_string ("Moon")~~~~ ans = Hello Moon~~.html NEWS file].
~~As a natural extension ~~* Single precision type* Experimental OpenGL graphics toolkit to replace gnuplot* Object orient programming via @class named directories* 64-bit compilation support* gzipped files and stream and consequently support of ~~this, functions can also be defined in script ~~Matlab v7 files * a fully compatible MEX interface* imwrite and imread (~~m-files whose first non-comment line isn~~based on the GraphicsMagick library)* Lazy transpose: Special treatment in the parser of things like "a'~~t <tt>function out = foo (~~* b", where the transpose is never explicitly formed but a flag is rather passed to the underlying LAPACK code.~~..)</tt>)~~
~~The pound character~~For full details on older releases, ~~<tt>#</tt>, may be used to start comments, in addition to <tt>%</tt>. See the previous example. The major advantage of this is that as <tt>#</tt> is also a comment character for unix script files, any file that starts with a string like <tt>#! /usr/bin/octave -q</tt> will be treated as an octave script and be executed by octave.~~see:
~~===Strings delimited by double quotes "===~~* [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/83792dd9bcc1/etc/NEWS.1 NEWS.1] for the 1.X.Y series* [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/83792dd9bcc1/etc/NEWS.2 NEWS.2] for the 2.X.Y series* [http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/83792dd9bcc1/etc/NEWS.3 NEWS.3] for the 3.X.Y series
~~The double quote, <tt>"</tt>, may be used to delimit strings, in addition to the single quote <tt>'</tt>. See the previous example. Also, double-quoted strings include backslash interpretation (like C++, C, ~~=Packages and ~~Perl) while single quoted are uninterpreted (like Matlab and Perl).~~Octave Forge=
~~Lines can be continued with ~~Do not do it! Really, there is no reason to do this. Octave has many packages for different needs and is unlikely that you need all of them. You either have a ~~backslash~~small set of required packages, ~~<tt>\</tt>~~in which caseyou know them by name; or you want them all "just because", in ~~addition to three points <tt>...</tt>. See the previous example~~which case you don't really need them.
~~===Informative block closing===~~The common misconception is that the more packages one has installed and loaded, the more complete and powerful its Octave installation will be. However, in the same way one would never install all perl modules, ruby gems, python packages, and C++ libraries (because it simply makes no sense), one should not install all Octave packages.
~~You may close function, for, while, if, ~~Packages should be installed and loaded selectively.~~.. blocks with endfunction, endfor, endwhile, ... keywords in addition ~~ Note that some packages are meant to ~~using end. As with Matlab~~shadow core functions changing the way Octave works, ~~the end (or endfunction) keyword ~~and that ~~marks ~~different packages can have different functions with the ~~end of a function defined in a .m file is optional~~same name leading to unpredictable results.
~~Indexing other things than variables is possible, as in:~~==I have installed a package but still get a "foo undefined" error?==
~~ octave:1> ~~You have probably forgotten to load the package. Use {{Codeline|pkg load package-name}} to load it. Most packages are no longer loaded automatically to avoid surprises. See reasoning on related FAQ [~~3 1 4 1 5 9~~[FAQ#How_do_I_install_all_Octave_packages.3F|how do I install all Octave packages]]~~(3)~~~~ ans = 4~~~~ octave:2> cos(~~. If you want a specific package to be loaded by default at startup, consider adding the {{Codeline|pkg load}} command on your {{path|[~~0 pi pi/4 7~~[.octaverc]]~~)(3)~~~~ ans = 0~~}} file.~~70711~~
~~In Matlab, it is for example necessary to assign the intermediate result <tt>cos([0 pi pi/4 7])</tt> to ~~==I cannot install a ~~variable before it can be indexed again~~package. Octave complains about a missing mkoctfile. ==~~=Exclamation mark as not operator===~~ ~~The exclamation mark <tt>!</tt> (aka “Bang!”) is a negation operator, just like the tilde <tt>~</tt>:~~
~~ octave:1> if ! strcmp (program_name~~You should normally use your distribution's packages. For Debian and Fedora, ~~"octave"),~~~~ ~~Octave package <code> ~~ "It's an error"~~~~ ~~foo</code> ~~else~~~~ ~~will be a deb or rpm called <code> ~~ "It works!"~~~~ ~~octave-foo</code> ~~end~~~~ ans = It works!~~~~Note however ~~, and you should install that ~~Matlab uses the ~~instead using <~~tt~~code>~~!~~apt</~~tt~~code> or <code>yum</code> ~~operator for shell escapes, for which Octave requires using the system command~~.
~~===Increment and decrement operators===~~If you really need to build Octave packages from source to install them, you'll need {{manual|mkoctfile}}. Most distributions split Octave into several packages. The script {{manual|mkoctfile}} is then part of a separate package:
~~If you like the <tt>++</tt>, <tt>+=</tt> etc operators, rejoice! Octave includes the C-like increment and decrement operators <tt>++</tt> and <tt>--</tt> in both their prefix and postfix forms, in addition to <tt>+=</tt>, <tt>-=</tt>, <tt>~~*~~=<~~Debian/~~tt>, <tt>~~Ubuntu: [https:/~~=<~~/~~tt>, <tt>^=</tt>, <tt>~~packages.~~*=</tt>, <tt>~~debian.org/~~=<~~stretch/~~tt>, and <tt>.^=</tt>.~~liboctave-dev liboctave-dev]
~~For example, to pre~~* Fedora: {{Codeline|octave-~~increment the variable x, you would write ++x. This would add one to x and then return the new value of x as the result of the expression. It is exactly the same as the expression x = x + 1.~~devel}}
~~To post-increment ~~==How do I automatically load a ~~variable x, you would write x++. This adds one to the variable x, but returns the value that x had prior to incrementing it. For example, if x is equal to 2, the result of the expression x++ is 2, and the new value of x is 3.~~package at Octave startup?==
~~For matrix and vector arguments~~When Octave starts, it runs the ~~increment and decrement operators work on each element of ~~file {{Path|~/.octaverc}} (in your user's home directory). If you want Octave to automatically load a package, simply add a <code>pkg load pkg-name</code> command to it. If the ~~operand~~files does not exist, create it.
~~===Unwind-protect===~~If you do this, remember that other people may not have Octave configured to load packages at startup. Therefore, if you write code for others, remember that your programs still need to load the packages they require.
~~In addition to try-catch blocks, ~~=Octave ~~supports an alternative form of exception handling modeled after the unwind-protect form of Lisp. The general form of an unwind_protect block looks like this:~~usage=
~~ unwind_protect~~~~ body~~~~ unwind_protect_cleanup~~~~ cleanup~~~~ end_unwind_protect~~==How do I execute an Octave script?==
~~Where body ~~First of all, make sure you understand [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Script-Files.html the difference between script files and ~~cleanup are both optional and may contain ~~function files]. If you want to execute a function defined in a file, just call the function like any other Octave ~~expressions or commands. The statements in cleanup are guaranteed to be executed regardless of how control exits body.~~function: <code>foo(arg1, arg2);</code>
~~Matlab ~~If the script name has characters that are not valid for an Octave identifier, or if you do not want to use {{manual|addpath}} to add the script's location to the current path, you can ~~be made to do something similar with their <tt>OnCleanUp</tt> ~~use the {{manual|run}} function ~~that was introduced in 2008a. Octave also has <tt>onCleanup</tt> since version 3.4.0.~~instead:
~~==How does Octave solve linear systems?==~~ $ octave the-script.m arg1 arg2
~~=How do I~~ $ .~~..?=~~/the-script arg1 arg2
~~==do xxxx~~If you call the script from the shell and it's plotting, please note [[#When I try plotting from a script, why am I not seeing anything?~~==~~|how to plot when running a script from the shell]].
~~You are probably looking for the function ''lookfor''. This function searches the help text of all functions for ~~==How do I close a ~~specific string and returns the list of functions that have. By default only searches the first line of the help text of each so use '''help lookfor'' at the octave prompt to learn more. The following example helps to find the function to calculate correlation coefficient in a matrix~~figure?==
~~ octave:1> lookfor ("correlation")~~~~ corr2 Returns ~~To close the ~~correlation coefficient between I and J.~~~~ cor Compute correlation.~~~~ corrcoef Compute correlation.~~~~ spearman Compute Spearman's rank correlation coefficient RHO for each of ~~current figure type {{manual|close}} in the ~~variables sp~~~~ autocor Return the autocorrelations from lag 0 to H of vector X~~Octave command prompt. ~~Also, there's a high chance that the function name has a suggestive name so you can try auto-completion to get some hints. For the previous example, typing ''corr'' at the octave promp followed by pressing [Tab] twice would suggest the following:~~ ~~ octave:2> corr~~~~ corr2 corrcoef~~ ~~==How do I erase a figure?== ~~ ~~ closeplot(); ~~~~ closefig(number)~~
~~ octave:1> format long~~~~ octave:2> pi~~~~ pi = 3.14159265358979~~~~ octave:3> ~~You can control the number of displayed decimals using the {{manual|format ~~short~~~~ octave~~}} command:~~4> pi~~~~ pi = 3.1416~~
~~* There's plpot_octave, but the one in debian doesn't work for me.~~~~* Here's my octave hack for it--- http://gnufans.net/~deego/pub/octave/plot_width.m This one simply draws the line multiple times.~~~~* You can edit the .eps file manually or using sed and awk.~~~~* Export the graph as fig file (gset term fig thickness 2). This also allows for easy postediting with xfig and export to formats not supported by gnuplot.~~~~* The gplot command of octave does not support gnuplot's linewidth parameter Thus you must use the graw() ~~==How do I call an Octave function ~~for sending this option directly to gnuplot, eg. ~~~~ graw('replot "" notitle with lines lw 4\n');~~~~*Search the [http://octave.1599824.n4.nabble.com/ octave archives] for more.~~from C++?==
~~==How do I call an ~~Please read the manual https://www.gnu.org/software/octave ~~function ~~/doc/interpreter/Calling-Octave-Functions-from ~~C++?==~~-Oct_002dFiles.html.
~~*Here is an untested code snippet for calling rand([9000,1]), modified from a post by HerberFarnsworth~~==How do I change color/line definition in gnuplot postscript? ~~to help-octave on 2003-05-01:~~==
~~ #include <octave/oct.h>~~~~ ...~~~~ ColumnVector NumRands(2);~~~~ NumRands(0) = 9000;~~~~ NumRands(1) = 1;~~~~ octave_value_list f_arg, f_ret;~~~~ f_arg(0) = octave_value(NumRands);~~~~ f_ret = feval("rand",f_arg,1);~~~~ Matrix unis(f_ret(0).matrix_value());~~ ~~==How do I create a full semilog/log grid==~~ ~~ gset grid mxtics mytics~~~~ gset grid lw 2, lw 0.1~~~~ grid("on");~~ ~~One can use postscript enhancement for proper axis~~~~ gset format x "10^{%%L}"~~~~or~~~~ gset format y "10^{%%L}" ~~ ~~==How do I change colour/line definition in gnuplot postscript?==~~Here is a awk script to get a rainbow ~~colour ~~color map
~~Look at functions like ~~One can use the function {{manual|exist}} to tell if a regular file, say <code>foo.txt</code> exist in Octave's load path, or the current directory: <syntaxhighlight lang="octave">>> exist("foo.txt", "file") # 2, if file exists, 0 otherwiseans = 2</syntaxhighlight> ==How do I create a plot without a window popping up (plot to a file directly)?== <syntaxhighlight lang="octave">figure (1, "visible", "off");plot (sin (1:100));print -deps "/tmp/sin.eps"</syntaxhighlight> One can set that behavior as default: <syntaxhighlight lang="octave">set (0, "defaultfigurevisible", "off");</syntaxhighlight> ==How do I increase Octave's precision?== Octave's default numerical type is [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_754 IEEE 754] binary64 , a.k.a. "double" or "hardware floats". This type has a precision of 53 bits or about 16 decimal digits. It is supported by each modern computer hardware, so it is really '''fast'''. This type is assumed throughout for Octave's calculations. If more precision was required, one can obtain a "few bits more" by using integer types, ~~file_in_path~~e.g.{{manual|uint64}}, but in general one cannot expect more precision from any '''fast''' numerical software. Just to visualize "how big" those numerical limits are, consider the following table: {| class="wikitable"|+ Limits of some of Octave's data types obtained by {{manual|intmax}} and {{manual|flintmax}}.|-| <code>intmax ("uint64")</code>| style="text-align: right;" | <code>18,446,744,073,709,551,615</code>| <code>2^64-1</code>|-| <code>intmax ("int64")</code>| style="text-align: right;" | <code>9,223,372,036,854,775,807</code>| <code>2^63-1</code>|-| <code>flintmax ("double")</code>| style="text-align: right;" | <code>9,007,199,254,740,992</code>| <code>2^53</code>|-| <code>flintmax ("single")</code>| style="text-align: right;" | <code>16,777,216</code>| <code>2^24</code>|} When working with other types than "double" in Octave, one has to make sure, that the first operand is converted to the desired type: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">>> uint64 (2^53 + 1)ans = 9007199254740992>> uint64 (2^53) + 1ans = 9007199254740993</syntaxhighlight> Notice the difference, in the first line the addition within the brackets is performed using double precision, therefore the result gets "truncated" to the maximum possible value without a warning. The third line uses throughout uint64 precision. Consider carefully if your problem really needs more precision. Often if you're running out of precision the problem lies fundamentally in your methods being [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_stability numerically unstable], thus more precision will not help you here. If you absolutely must have more precision, you're at present better off using a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_algebra_system CAS] instead of Octave. However, CAS or symbolic computations must be implemented '''in software''' which makes it much slower than hardware floats. An example of such a CAS is [http://www.sagemath.org/ Sage] or have a look at Octave's [[Symbolic package]]. ==How do I run a Matlab P-file in Octave?== You can't. Matlab P-files (files with a <code>.p</code> file extension), also known as P-code, are [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obfuscation_%28software%29 obfuscated] files than cannot be run outside of Matlab itself. The original source Matlab m-files that were used to generate these P-files should be used in Octave instead. There are no plans to support running P-files produced by Matlab in Octave. ==How does Octave solve linear systems?== In addition to consulting Octave's source for the precise details, you can read the ~~other functions ~~Octave manual for a complete high-level description of the algorithm that ~~their descriptions point ~~Octave uses to decide how tosolve a particular linear system, e.g. how the backslash operator <code>A \ x</code> will be interpreted. Sections [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Techniques-Used-for-Linear-Algebra.html Techniques Used for Linear Algebra] and [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Sparse-Linear-Algebra.html Linear Algebra on Sparse Matrices] from the manual describe this procedure.
~~==How do I create ~~You are probably looking for the function {{manual|lookfor}}. This function searches the help text of all functions for a ~~plot without ~~specific string and returns a ~~window popping up ~~list of functions. Note that by default it will only search the first line of the help text (~~ie, a plot ~~check <code>help lookfor</code> at the octave prompt for more). The following example helps to find the function to calculate correlation coefficient in a ~~file)?==~~matrix:
~~figure(1, "visible", "off");~~>> lookfor correlation ~~plot(sin(1:100));~~corr Compute matrix of correlation coefficients. corrcoef Compute a matrix of correlation coefficients. ~~print -deps "/tmp/sin~~spearman Compute Spearman's rank correlation coefficient RHO.~~eps"~~
~~One ~~Also, there's a high chance that the function name has a suggestive name, and so you can ~~set that behaviour as default~~try auto-completion to get some hints. For the previous example, typing <code>corr</code> at the octave prompt followed by pressing the {{key press|Tab}}-Key twice would suggest the following:
~~set(0, 'defaultfigurevisible', 'off');~~>> corr corr corrcoef
~~This is ~~If you are running an Octave script that includes a ~~known problem ~~plotting command, the script and Octave may terminate immediately. So the plot window does show up, but immediately closes when Octave finishes execution. Alternatively, if ~~you have one of ~~using fltk, the plot window needs a readline loop to show up (the ~~following packages loaded:~~time when Octave is sitting around doing nothing waiting for interactive input).
~~* ann~~~~* database~~~~* ftp ~~A common solution is to put a {{manual|pause}} command at the end of your script.
~~See http://www.nabble.com/Segmentation-Fault---Clear-all-td21998563.html for a discussion~~==How do I get sound input or output in Windows?==
~~==~~Sound input from a sound card and output to a sound card is fully supported since Octave ~~takes ~~4.0.0 for all platforms. If you have problems with the [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Audio-Processing.html audio I/O functions] using Octave 4.0.0 or a ~~long time to find symbols~~newer version, please report them on the [http://bugs.octave.org bug tracker].~~==~~
~~==When plotting Octave occasionally gives me errors like <tt>gnuplot> 9 0.735604 line 26317: invalid command</tt>.==~~~~There is a known bug in gnuplot 4.2 that can cause an off ~~Please be more specific about what you mean by ~~one error while piping data to gnuplot. It has been fixed in gnuplot 4.4.~~"latest version"?
~~If ~~* The latest stable version is {{Release}}. Be aware that you may still have ~~obtained ~~an older version due to whatever distribution method you are using. To get a newer stable version for your ~~copy of ~~system see for example [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]], [[Octave for macOS|macOS]], or [[Octave ~~from a distribution please file a bug report requesting that the fix reported in the above bug report be included~~for Microsoft Windows|Windows]]).
~~Most distributions split Octave into several packages. The script mkoctfile ~~If the Qt graphics toolkit is used and "plot" is ~~then part of ~~used for the first time, the fontconfig scanner searches the font directory to build a ~~separate package:~~font cache. This can take up to 3min on slow CPUs. See {{bug|45458}}
~~* Debian/Ubuntu<br/>~~~~ <tt>aptitude install octave-headers</tt>~~==Error message about invalid call to script or invalid use of script in index expression==
~~* Fedora<br~~If Octave shows an error message about {{Codeline|invalid call to script .../~~>~~~~ <tt>yum install octave~~close.m}} or {{Codeline|invalid use of of script .../close.m in index expression}}, it means that you have created a script called close.m that is overriding the built-~~devel</tt>~~in Octave function {{Codeline|close}}. Octave functions and scripts share the samem global namespace. It is best to avoid creating your own scripts or functions that have the same name as an Octave function.
~~You should also look at ~~As both Octave and Matlab are under constant development, the ~~page http://octave.sourceforge.net/packages.html and http://octave.sourceforge.net/doc/ that has a function reference that ~~information in this section is ~~up ~~subject to ~~date. You can use this function reference to see the number of octave function that are available and their Matlab compatibility~~change.
~~==How ~~You should also look at the pages http://octave.sourceforge.net/packages.php and http://octave.sourceforge.net/docs.html that have a function reference that is ~~Octave different from ~~up to date. You can use this function reference to see the number of octave functions that are available and their Matlab~~?==~~compatibility.
~~The major differences between Octave 3.4.N and Matlab R2010b are:~~==Nested Functions==
~~===Nested Functions===~~Octave has limited support for nested functionssince version 3.8.0. That is
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">function y = foo (x)~~ ~~ y = bar(x)~~ ~~ function y = bar (x)~~ ~~ y = ...;~~ ~~ end~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">function y = foo (x)~~ ~~ y = bar(x)~~ end~~endfunction ~~ ~~function y = bar (x)~~ ~~ y = ...;~~ end~~endfunction</syntaxhighlight>
~~=~~==Differences in core syntax~~=~~==
~~=~~==Differences in core functions~~=~~==
~~=~~==Just-In-Time compiler~~=~~==
~~=~~==Compiler~~=~~==
~~=~~==Graphic ~~Handles=~~handles==
~~Up to Octave 2.9.9 there was no support for graphic handles in Octave itself. In the 3.2.N versions of Octave and beyond the ~~The support for graphics handles is converging towards full compatibility. ~~The patch function is currently limited to 2-D patches~~ If you notice any incompatibilities, ~~due to an underlying limitation in gnuplot, but the experimental OpenGL backend is starting to see an implementation of 3-D patches~~please [http://bugs.octave.org report a bug].~~===GUI===~~
~~There are no Matlab compatible ~~==GUI functions ~~yet. This might be an issue if you intend to exchange Octave code with Matlab users. There are a number of bindings from Octave to Tcl/Tk, VTK and Zenity included in the Octave Forge project (http://octave.sourceforge.net) for example that can be used for a GUI, but these are not Matlab compatible. Work on a Matlab compatible GUI is in an alpha stage in the QtHandles project, which may form part of a future release of Octave.~~==
~~===Simulink===~~The support for [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/GUI-Development.html Matlab compatible GUI functions] was added in Octave version 3.6.0 and is converging towards full compatibility. If you notice any incompatibilities, please [http://bugs.octave.org report a bug].
~~Octave itself includes no ~~==Simulink ~~support. Typically the simulink models lag research and are less flexible, so shouldn't really be used in a research environment. However, some Matlab users that try to use Octave complain about this lack.~~==
~~===MEX-Files===~~Octave itself includes no Simulink support. Typically the simulink models lag research and are less flexible, so shouldn't really be used in a research environment. However, some Matlab users that try to use Octave complain about this lack.
~~Octave includes an API to the Matlab ~~==MEX ~~interface. However, as MEX is an API to the internals of Matlab and the internals of Octave differ from Matlab, there is necessarily a manipulation of the data to convert from a MEX interface to the Octave equivalent. This is notable for all complex matrices, where Matlab stores complex arrays as real and imaginary parts, whereas Octave respects the C99/C++ standards of co~~-~~locating the real/imag parts in memory. Also due to the way Matlab allows access to the arrays passed through a pointer, the MEX interface might require copies of arrays (even non complex ones).~~Files==
~~===Block comments===~~Octave includes an [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Mex_002dFiles.html API to the Matlab MEX interface]. However, as MEX is an API to the internals of Matlab and the internals of Octave differ from Matlab, there is necessarily a manipulation of the data to convert from a MEX interface to the Octave equivalent. This is notable for all complex matrices, where Matlab stores complex arrays as real and imaginary parts, whereas Octave respects the C99/C++ standards of co-locating the real/imag parts in memory. Also due to the way Matlab allows access to the arrays passed through a pointer, the MEX interface might require copies of arrays (even non complex ones).
~~===Mat-File format===~~Block comments denoted by <code>#{</code> and <code>#}</code> markers (or <code>%{</code> and <code>%}</code>) are supported by Octave with some limitations. The major limitation is that block comments are not supported within [] or {}.
~~=~~==Profiler~~=~~==
~~Current Octave releases don't have a profiler, but there is one in the 3.5 development version, thanks ~~Thanks to Daniel Kraft's 2011 Google Summer of Code project, [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Profiling. ~~It should be released with ~~html Octave has a profiler] since version 3.6.0.
~~=~~==Toolboxes~~=~~==
~~=~~==Short-circuit <~~tt~~code>&</~~tt~~code> and <~~tt~~code>|</~~tt~~code> operators~~=~~==
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">if (a | b)~~ ~~ ...~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">t = a | b;~~ ~~if (t)~~ ~~ ...~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight> have different semantics in Matlab. This is really a Matlab bug, but there is too much code out there that relies on this behavior to change it. Prefer the <code>&&</code> and <code>||</code> operators in {{Codeline|if}} statements if possible.
~~have different semantics in ~~Note that the difference with Matlab~~. This ~~is ~~really ~~also significant when either argument is a ~~Matlab bug, but there ~~function with side effects or if the first argument is ~~too much code out there that relies on this behaviour to change it. Prefer ~~a scalar and the ~~<tt>||</tt> and <tt>&&</tt> operators in <tt>if</tt> statements if possible~~second argument is an empty matrix. ~~If you need to use code written for Matlab that depends on this buggy behaviour~~ For example, ~~you can enable it since Octave 3.4.0 with ~~note the ~~following command:~~difference between
~~ do_braindead_shortcircuit_evaluation~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">t = 1 | []; ## results in [], so...if (t) 1, end ## in if ([]), this is false.</syntaxhighlight>
~~Note that the difference with Matlab is also significant when either argument is a function with side effects or if the first argument is a scalar ~~and ~~the second argument is an empty matrix. For example, note the difference between~~
~~ t ~~<syntaxhighlight lang= "Octave">if (1 | []~~; ## results in [], so...~~~~ if (t~~) 1, end ~~ ~~ ## ~~in if ([]), this ~~short circuits so condition is ~~false~~true.</syntaxhighlight>
~~and~~In the latter case, Octave displays since version 4.0.0 a warning:
~~ if (1 | []) 1, end ~~ ~~## ~~warning: Matlab-style short ~~circuits so condition is true.~~-circuit operation performed for operator |
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">t = [1, 1] | [1, 2, 3]; ## error~~ ~~if ([1, 1] | [1, 2, 3]) 1, end ## OK</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">if ([0, 1]) == if (all ([0, 1])) ==> i.e., condition is false.~~ ~~if ([1, 1]) == if (all ([1, 1])) ==> i.e., condition is true.</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">if ([])</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">if (all ([]))</syntaxhighlight>
~~=~~==Solvers for singular, under- and over-determined matrices~~=~~==
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">function x = mldivide (A, b)~~ ~~ m = rows (A); [Q, R, E] = qr(A);~~ ~~ x = [A \ b, E(:, 1:m) * (R(:, 1:m) \ (Q' * b))]~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight>
~~ m = 10;~~~~ n = 10000;~~~~ A = ones(m, n) + 1e~~while Octave's minimum-norm values are about 3e-~~6 * randn(m~~2,~~n);~~~~ b = ones(m, 1) + 1e~~Matlab's results are 50-~~6 * randn(m~~times larger. For another issue,~~1);~~~~ norm(A \ b)~~try this code:
~~while ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave~~'s minimum-norm values are around 3e-2~~">m = 5;n = 100;j = floor (m * rand (1, n)) + 1;b = ones (m, 1);A = zeros (m, n);A(sub2ind(size(A),j,1:n)) = 1;x = A \ b;[~, ~~Matlab's results are 50-times larger. For another issue~~p] = sort (rand (1, ~~try this code~~n));y = A(:,p) \ b;norm (x(p) - y)</syntaxhighlight>
~~ m = 5;~~~~ n = 100;~~~~ j = floor(m * rand(1~~It shows that unlike in Octave, ~~n)) + 1;~~~~ b = ones(m, 1);~~~~ A = zeros(m, n);~~~~ A(sub2ind(size(A),j,1:n)) = 1;~~~~ x = A \ b;~~~~ [dummy,p] = sort(rand(1,n));~~~~ y = A(:~~{{manual|mldivide}} in Matlab is not invariant with respect to column permutations. If there are multiple columns of the same norm,~~p)\b;~~~~ norm(x(p)-y)~~permuting columns of the matrix gets you different result than permuting the solution vector. This will surprise many users.
~~It shows that unlike in Octave~~Since the {{manual|mldivide}} <code>\</code> and {{manual|mrdivide}} <code>/</code> operators are often part of a more complex expression, ~~mldivide in Matlab ~~where there is ~~not invariant with respect ~~no room to react to ~~column permutations. If there ~~warnings or flags, it should prefer intelligence (robustness) to speed, and so the Octave developers are ~~multiple columns ~~firmly of the ~~same norm~~opinion that Octave's approach for singular, ~~permuting columns of the matrix gets you different result ~~under- and over-determined matrices is a better choice than ~~permuting the solution vector. This will surprise many users~~Matlab's.
~~Since the mldivide (\) and mrdivide (/) operators are often part of a more complex expression, where there is no room to react to warnings or flags, it should prefer intelligence (robustness) to speed, and so the ~~==Octave ~~developers are firmly of the opinion that Octave's approach for singular, under- and over-determined matrices is a better choice than Matlab's.~~extensions==
~~===~~The extensions in Octave over MATLAB syntax are very useful, but might cause issues when sharing with Matlab users. A list of the major extensions~~===~~that should be avoided to be compatible with Matlab are:
~~The extensions ~~Comments in Octave ~~over Matlab syntax are very useful, but might cause issues when sharing with Matlab users. A list of the major extensions that should be avoided to be compatible with Matlab are~~~~Comments in octave ~~can be marked with ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|#~~</tt>~~}}. This allows POSIX systems to have the first line as ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|#! octave -q~~</tt> ~~}} and mark the script itself executable. ~~Matlab ~~MATLAB doesn't have this feature due to the absence of comments starting with ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|#~~</tt>~~}}".
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Matlab">global a~~ ~~a = 1;~~ ~~try~~ ~~ _a = a;~~ ~~ a = 2~~ ~~ while true~~ ~~ end~~ ~~catch~~ ~~ fprintf ('caught interrupt\n');~~ ~~ a = _a;~~ ~~ rethrow (lasterror());~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight>
~~ ~~<syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">global a~~ ~~a = 1;~~ ~~unwind_protect~~ ~~ _a = a;~~ ~~ a = 2~~ ~~ while true~~ ~~ end~~ ~~unwind_protect_cleanup~~ ~~ fprintf ('caught interrupt\n');~~ ~~ a = _a;~~ ~~end</syntaxhighlight> Typing Ctrl-C in the first case returns the user directly to the prompt, and the variable <code>a</code> is not reset to the saved value. In the second case the variable <code>a</code> is reset correctly. Therefore Matlab gives no safe way of temporarily changing global variables. Indexing can be applied to all objects in Octave and not just variables. Therefore {{Codeline|sin(x)(1:10)}} for example is perfectly valid in Octave but not Matlab. To do the same in Matlab you must do {{Codeline|y = sin(x); y = y([1:10]);}} Octave has the operators {{Codeline|++}}, {{Codeline|–-}}, {{Codeline|-=}}, {{Codeline|+=}}, {{Codeline|*=}}, etc. As MATLAB doesn't, if you are sharing code these should be avoided. Character strings in Octave can be denoted with double or single quotes. There is a subtle difference between the two in that escaped characters like {{Codeline|\n}} (newline), {{Codeline|\t}} (tab), etc are interpreted in double quoted strings but not single quoted strings. This difference is important on Windows platforms where the {{Codeline|\}} character is used in path names, and so single quoted strings should be used in paths. MATLAB doesn't have double quoted strings and so they should be avoided if the code will be transferred to a MATLAB user. ==What features are unique to Octave?== Although most of the Octave language will be familiar to Matlab users, it has some unique features of its own. === Functions defined on the command-line===Functions can be defined by entering code on the command line, a feature not supported by Matlab. For example, you may type: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">>> function s = hello_string (to_who)> ## Say hello> if nargin<1, to_who = "World"; end> s = ["Hello ",\> to_who];> endfunction>> hello_string ("Moon")ans = Hello Moon</syntaxhighlight> As a natural extension of this, functions can also be defined in script files (m-files whose first non-comment line isn't {{Codeline|function out = foo (...)}}) Note: MATLAB R2016b added the ability to [http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/matlab_prog/local-functions-in-scripts.html define functions in script files]. ===Comments with #=== The pound character, {{Codeline|#}}, may be used to start comments, in addition to {{Codeline|%}}. See the previous example. The major advantage of this is that as {{Codeline|#}} is also a comment character for unix script files, any file that starts with a string like {{Codeline|#! /usr/bin/octave -q}} will be treated as an octave script and be executed by octave. ===Strings delimited by double quotes "=== In 2016, Matlab introduced String Arrays, that are initialized by using double quoted strings, and are not implemented in Octave yet. In Octave double-quoted strings include backslash interpretation (like C++, C, and Perl) while single quoted are uninterpreted (like Matlab and Perl). ===Line continuation by backslash=== Lines can be continued with a backslash, {{Codeline|\}}, in addition to three points {{Codeline|...}} as in Matlab. ===Informative block closing=== You may close function, for, while, if, ... blocks with endfunction, endfor, endwhile, ... keywords in addition to using end. As with Matlab, the end (or endfunction) keyword that marks the end of a function defined in a .m file is optional. ===Coherent syntax=== Indexing other things than variables is possible, as in: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">>> [3 1 4 1 5 9](3)ans = 4>> cos([0 pi pi/4 7])(3)ans = 0.70711</syntaxhighlight> In Matlab, it is for example necessary to assign the intermediate result {{Codeline|cos([0 pi pi/4 7])}} to a variable before it can be indexed again. ===Exclamation mark as not operator=== The exclamation mark {{Codeline|!}} (aka “Bang!”) is a negation operator, just like the tilde {{Codeline|~}}: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">>> if ! strcmp (program_name, "octave"),> "It's an error"> else> "It works!"> endans = It works!</syntaxhighlight> Note however that Matlab uses the {{Codeline|!}} operator for shell escapes, for which Octave requires using the system command. ===Increment and decrement operators=== If you like the {{Codeline|++}}, {{Codeline|+=}} etc operators, rejoice! Octave includes the C-like increment and decrement operators {{Codeline|++}} and {{Codeline|--}} in both their prefix and postfix forms, in addition to {{Codeline|+=}}, {{Codeline|-=}}, {{Codeline|*=}}, {{Codeline|/=}}, {{Codeline|^=}},{{Codeline|.+=}},{{Codeline|.-=}},{{Codeline|.*=}}, {{Codeline|./=}} and {{Codeline|.^=}}. For example, to pre-increment the variable x, you would write {{Codeline|++x}}. This would add one to x and then return the new value of x as the result of the expression. It is exactly the same as the expression {{Codeline|x = x + 1}}. To post-increment a variable x, you would write {{Codeline|x++}}. This adds one to the variable x, but returns the value that x had prior to incrementing it. For example, if x is equal to 2, the result of the expression x++ is 2, and the new value of x is 3. For matrix and vector arguments, the increment and decrement operators work on each element of the operand. ===Unwind-protect=== In addition to try-catch blocks, Octave supports an alternative form of exception handling modeled after the unwind-protect form of Lisp. The general form of an unwind_protect block looks like this: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">unwind_protect bodyunwind_protect_cleanup cleanupend_unwind_protect</syntaxhighlight> Where body and cleanup are both optional and may contain any Octave expressions or commands. The statements in cleanup are guaranteed to be executed regardless of how control exits body. The unwind_protect statement is often used to reliably restore the values of global variables that need to be temporarily changed. Matlab can be made to do something similar with their {{manaul|onCleanup}} function that was introduced in 2008a. Octave also has {{manual|onCleanup}} since version 3.4.0. ===Built-in ODE and DAE solvers=== Octave includes LSODE, DASSL and DASPK for solving systems of stiff ordinary differential and differential-algebraic equations. These functions are built in to the interpreter. ===Do-Until loop structure=== Similar to the do-while loop in C and C++, Octave allows a do-until loop which does not exist in Matlab: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">x = 0do x += 1;until (x == 10)</syntaxhighlight> ===Broadcasting=== Borrowed from [http://stackoverflow.com/q/26948776/3565696 other languages], [http://www.octave.org/doc/interpreter/Broadcasting.html octave broadcasting] allows easy and readable vectorization. <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">f = (1:0.1:2);# put angular frequencies on the first dimension to prepare broadcastingomega = 2 * pi * f(:);# time is already on the second dimension (row vector)t = 0:0.02:2;# the resulting s will be a 2-dimensional arrays = sin(omega .* t);# which can be displayed aspcolor(t, f, s)xlabel("t (s)")ylabel("f (Hz)")</syntaxhighlight> Note: [https://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/matlab_prog/compatible-array-sizes-for-basic-operations.html Automatic expansion of dimensions] was added to MATLAB R2016b. ===Documentation strings=== Octave allows extensive formatting of the help string of functions using Texinfo. The effect on the online documentation is relatively small, but makes the help string of functions conform to the help of Octave’s own functions. However, the effect on the appearance of printed or online documentation will be greatly improved. ===Test functions=== Octave allows to add self-tests to user defined functions. Tests are put after function definition in specially commented block. <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">function mult = a(val) mult = val.*2;endfunction%!test%! assert (a(3), 6);</syntaxhighlight> Such a function can be tested for valid outputs by following code: >> test a PASSES 1 out of 1 test ===Demonstration Functions=== Example code block can be part of function file in a similar manner as test functions. For example to run {{manual|demo}} for function multinom of package specfun, use: demo multinom ===Powerful assert=== Function assert have extended input possibilities. =[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface GUI]= ==Does Octave have a GUI?== '''Yes!''' It was officially released with Octave 4.0.0. It was also available since version 3.8.0 as an experimental feature (use the {{Codeline|--force-gui}} option to start Octave). ==Why did you create yet another GUI instead of making one that already exists better?== The previously existing GUIs were not part of Octave itself. The integration within Octave was rather bad, as all of them treated Octave as a foreign black box and used pipes for communication. This approach is bound to fail with each new version of Octave, as any fix would only be temporary. For historical reasons and to honor the approaches, a short list of previous GUIs for Octave: * '''QtOctave''' was a great, beautiful, and very useful tool which is now abandoned and incompatible with newer versions of Octave. We are thankful to its developers to make it free software so we could reuse large chunks of it for what is now the Octave GUI. * '''Quint''' was a project for an Octave GUI that actually tried to do it right. Eventually [https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/octave-maintainers/2011-07/msg00096.html it was merged into the Octave repository] and is no longer a separate project. Also, many bits from QtOctave were reused in the GUI. * '''[http://www.xoctave.com/ Xoctave]''', which is proprietary and commercial. * '''GUI Octave''', which was proprietary and is no longer available. =Graphics: backends and toolkits= ==What are the supported graphics backends?== * [https://www.opengl.org/ OpenGL] via the graphics toolkits '''[https://www.qt.io/ qt]''' (current default) and '''[http://www.fltk.org/ fltk]'''* [http://www.gnuplot.info/ gnuplot] via the '''gnuplot''' graphics toolkit ==How do I change my graphics toolkit?== There are three commands to deal with graphics toolkits: {| class="wikitable"| <code>available_graphics_toolkits</code>| lists all available graphics toolkits|-| <code>graphics_toolkit</code>| displays the currently used graphics toolkit|-| <code>graphics_toolkit ("qt/fltk/gnuplot")</code>| sets the graphics toolkit to either of [https://www.qt.io/ qt], [http://www.fltk.org/ fltk], or [http://www.gnuplot.info/ gnuplot], if available|} ==Why did you replace gnuplot with an OpenGL backend?== The development of Octave is committed to being both compatible with Matlab and adding additional features. Toward those ends, the developers decided to introduce a native OpenGL backend that supports Matlab handle graphics and its uicontrols. Starting with the 3.8 release, Octave uses OpenGL graphics by default (with [http://www.fltk.org/ FLTK widgets] in Octave 3.8 and [https://www.qt.io/ Qt widgets] in Octave 4.0 and later). ==Are there any plans to remove the gnuplot backend?== '''No.''' There are no plans to remove the gnuplot backend. It will be available as long as our users find it useful. ==How can I implement a new graphics backend/toolkit?== This is one of those times where the best documentation is to read the existing code. We have three different toolkits in Octave now, so there are some examples to draw from. =Development= ==When will feature X be released or implemented?== When it's ready, sooner [http://www.octave.org/get-involved.html if you help]. You can [https://savannah.gnu.org/patch/?group=octave send us patches] if you can implement feature X yourself. If you can't, some [http://www.octave.org/commercial-support.html developers may be convinced to work on your specific problem for some money]. ==How can I get involved in Octave development?== Be around. Be social. Participate in our mailing lists [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-octave help@octave.org] and [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/octave-maintainers maintainers@octave.org]. Find things about Octave you don't like, and start thinking about how to fix them. Many people who now contribute to Octave first spent several years helping in the mailing list before they started to delve into the code. A good way to learn Octave is to understand the problems other people are having with it, so being helpful in the mailing lists not only helps Octave as a whole, but it also prepares you to be a better Octave contributor.
~~Typing Ctrl-C in ~~If you feel ready to dive right into the ~~first case returns ~~code, read the ~~user directly ~~[[Developers]] wiki page or [http://www.octave.org/get-involved.html start here]. But do not send an email to the ~~prompt~~mailing lists listing your skills and offering to help. We won't just suggest things for you to do. We lack volunteers and we do need your help, but because of that, we also lack the time to provide good guidance and ~~the variable ''~~mentoring. If there is a~~'' is not reset ~~specific short-term project you would like to ~~the saved value~~work on, say so, and just do it. ~~In the second case the variable '~~ Then ask for help or advice when you're doing it. It is alot more important that you do something that you'~~' is reset correctly. Therefore Matlab gives no safe way of temporarily changing global variables~~re actually interested on than something we suggested because it only matches your skills.
~~Indexing can be applied to all objects in Octave ~~We also need help with this wiki and ~~not just variables~~the [http://www.octave. ~~Therefore <tt>sin(x)(1:10);<~~org/doc/interpreter/~~tt> ~~manual]. These are also important tasks. The documentation is easy to patch, and the help text for ~~example ~~individual functions even more so. Editing this wiki is ~~perfectly valid in Octave but not Matlab~~even easier. ~~To do the same in Matlab you must do <tt>y = sin(x); y = y([1:10]);</tt>~~
~~Octave has ~~Accurate bug reporting is also very useful. Find and report [http://bugs.octave.org/ bugs], making an attempt to diagnose them. Eventually, you will also know how to fix them. If you want to help with bug reports or patches, subscribe to the ~~operators <tt>++<~~[https:/~~tt>, <tt>–<~~/~~tt>, <tt>-=<~~lists.gnu.org/~~tt>, <tt>+=<~~mailman/~~tt>, <tt>*=<~~listinfo/~~tt>, etc~~octave-bug-tracker bug tracker mailing list]. ~~As Matlab doesn~~ You'~~t~~ll get updates on all bug activity, ~~if ~~and you can jump in when you seesomething you ~~are sharing code these should be avoided~~can help with.
~~Character strings in Octave can be denoted with double or single quotes. There is a subtle difference between the two in that escaped characters like <tt>\n</tt> (newline), <tt>\t</tt> (tab)~~Look at our [[projects]], ~~etc are interpreted in double quoted strings but not single quoted strings. This difference is important on Windows platforms where the <tt>\</tt> character is used in path names~~[[short projects]], and ~~so single quoted strings should be used in paths. Matlab doesn't have double quoted strings and so they should be avoided ~~[[Summer of Code Project Ideas]] if ~~the code will be transferred ~~you need specific inspiration for coding tasks that we would like to ~~a Matlab user~~get done.

This is a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ) for GNU Octave users.

We are always looking for new questions (with answers), better answers, or both. Feel free to edit this page with your changes~~. If you have general questions about Octave, or need help for something that is not covered by the Octave manual or the FAQ, please use the help@octave.org mailing list~~.

=General=

==What is Octave?==

[https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/ GNU Octave ] is a high-level ~~interactive ~~interpreted language, primarily intended for numerical computations ~~that ~~. It provides capabilities for the numerical solution of linear and nonlinear problems, and for performing other numerical experiments. It also provides extensive graphics capabilities for data visualization and manipulation. GNU Octave is normally used through its interactive interface ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command-line_interface CLI] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface GUI]), but it can also be used to write non-interactive programs. The GNU Octave language is ~~mostly compatible with ~~quite similar to Matlabso that most programs are easily portable.~~1~~

The GNU Octave ~~can do arithmetic for real, complex or integer-valued scalars and matrices, solve sets ~~distribution includes a [http://www.octave.org/octave.pdf 1000+ page Texinfo manual]. Access to the complete text of ~~nonlinear algebraic equations, integrate functions over finite and infinite intervals, and integrate systems of ordinary differential and differential-algebraic equations~~the manual is available via the <code>doc</code> command at the GNU Octave prompt.

==What is Octave ~~uses the GNU readline library to handle reading and editing input. By default, the line editing commands are similar to the cursor movement commands used by GNU Emacs, and a vi-style line editing interface is also available. At the end of each session, the command history is saved, so that commands entered during previous sessions are not lost.~~Forge?==

==Who uses Octave?==

Lots of people. ~~It seems that universities ~~ Universities use it for research and teaching, companies of all sizes~~, ~~for development, and individualsfor whatever private purpose. ~~This question comes often on Octave mailing lists, see ~~ See [[~~WhoUsesOctave~~Who Uses Octave?]] for a few answers.

==Who develops Octave?==

Discussions about writing the software that would eventually become Octave started in about 1988 with James B. Rawlings and [http://jweaton.org/ John W. Eaton ] at the University of Texas. John W. Eaton ~~was ~~is the original author of Octave, starting full-time development in February 1992. He is still the primary maintainer. The community of users~~/~~and developers has in addition contributed some code and fuels the discussion on the mailing lists [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-octave help@octave.org ] (user forum), [https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/octave-maintainers maintainers@octave.org ] (development issues~~), and octave-dev@lists.sourceforge.net (all things related to the Octave Forge repository of user-contributed functions~~).

==Why ~~'''GNU''' ~~"Octave"?==

==Why "GNU ~~is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix”; it is pronounced guh-noo, approximately like canoe.~~" Octave?==

The ~~Free Software Foundation (FSF) ~~[https://www.gnu.org/ GNU Project] was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software: the ~~principal organizational sponsor of the ~~GNU ~~Project~~system. GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix"; it is pronounced [https://www.gnu.org/gnu/pronunciation.en.html g'noo].

==~~What version should ~~How can I ~~use~~cite Octave?==

@manual{, title = {{GNU Octave ~~runs on various Unices—at least Linux and Solaris, Mac OS X~~} version {{Release}} manual: a high-level interactive language for numerical computations}, ~~Windows and anything you can compile it on~~ author = {John W. ~~Binary distributions exist at least for Debian, SUSE, Fedora ~~Eaton and ~~RedHat Linuxes (Intel ~~David Bateman and ~~AMD CPUs, at least), for Mac OS X ~~S{\o}ren Hauberg and ~~Windows' 98~~Rik Wehbring}, ~~2000~~ year = <span>{</span>{{Release Year}}}, ~~XP, Vista~~ url = {https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/v{{Release}}/}, ~~and 7.~~ }

==What documentation exists for Octave ~~is also free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License, version 3, as published by the Free Software Foundation, or at your option any later version.~~?==

=Licensing ~~Issues~~issues=

==If I write code using Octave do I have to release it under the GPL?==

The answer depends on precisely how the code is written and how it works~~.~~:

* Code written '''entirely in the scripting language of Octave ''' (interpreted code in .m files) may be released under the terms of whatever license you choose.

* Code written using [https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/Oct_002dFiles.html Octave's native ~~plug-in ~~code interface ] (also known as a .oct file) necessarily links with Octave internals and is considered a derivative work of Octave ~~and therefore ~~. Therefore it must be released under terms that are compatible with the [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html GPL].

* Code written using [https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/Mex_002dFiles.html Octave's implementation of the Matlab MEX interface ] may be released under the terms of whatever license you choose, provided that the following conditions are met:

:# The ~~plugin should ~~MEX file may not use any bindings that are specific to Octave~~. In other words~~, ~~the MEX file must ~~'''it has to use the MEX interface only'''. In other words, ~~and not also call on other Octave internals. It ~~it should be possible in principle to use the MEX file with other programs that implement the MEX interface (e.g., Matlab). For example including an Octave header file or calling an Octave function within the MEX file, that is not related with Octave's implementation of the MEX interface make the MEX file a derivative work of Octave and has therefore to be released under terms that are compatible with the [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html GPL].:# The MEX file ~~should ~~may not be distributed together with Octave in such a way that they effectively create a single work. For example, you should not distribute the MEX file and Octave together in a single package such that Octave automatically loads and runs the MEX file when it starts up. There are other possible ways ~~that you might ~~to effectively create a single work; this is just one example.

==~~Since ~~Will you change the ~~MEX interface allows plugins to be distributed under terms that are incompatible with ~~license of the ~~GPL, does this mean that you are encouraging people to to write non-free software ~~Octave libraries for ~~Octave~~me?==

'''No. ~~The original reason for implementing the MEX interface for Octave was to allow Octave ~~''' Instead of asking us to ~~run free software that uses MEX files (~~change the ~~particular goal was to run SundialsTB in Octave). The intent was to liberate that software from Matlab and increase the amount of free software available to Octave users, not to enable people to write proprietary code ~~licensing terms for Octave~~. For the good of the community~~, we ~~strongly encourage users of Octave to ~~recommend that you release ~~the code they write for Octave ~~your program under terms that are compatible with the GPL. This way the free software community can benefit from your work the same as you have benefited from the work of all the people who have contributed to Octave.

==Should I ~~wrote a program that links with Octave libraries and I don't want ~~favor the MEX interface to ~~release it under the terms of ~~avoid the GPL~~. Will you change the license of the Octave libraries for me~~?==

'''No. ~~Instead ~~''' The original reason for implementing the [https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/Mex_002dFiles.html MEX interface] for Octave was to allow Octave to run free software that uses MEX files (the particular goal was to run [https://computation.llnl.gov/projects/sundials/release-history#sundialsTB sundialsTB] in Octave). The intent was to liberate that software from Matlab and increase the amount of ~~asking us ~~free software available to Octave users, not to enable people to ~~change the licensing terms ~~write proprietary code for Octave. For the good of the community, we ~~recommend that you ~~strongly encourage users of Octave to release ~~your program ~~the code they write for Octave under terms that are compatible with the [https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html GPL ~~so that the free software community can benefit from your work the same as you have benefited from the work of all the people who have contributed to Octave~~].

=~~What~~=Why can'~~s new ~~t I use code from File Exchange in ~~version series 3.4.N and 3.5.N of ~~Octave?==

==What ~~else do I need?~~'s new in version series 3.8.X of Octave==

==~~Can I compile ~~What's new in version series 3.6.X of Octave ~~with another C++ compiler?~~==

* Perl compatible regular expressions

* A profiler has been added.

* Broadcasting enabled for all built-in binary element-wise operators.

* Performance of all m-file string functions has been improved.

=~~Coding~~=What's new in version series 3.4.X of Octave==

==What's new in version series 3.2.X of Octave= ~~Functions defined on the command-line~~=~~==~~~~Functions can be defined by entering code on the command line, a feature not supported by Matlab. For example, you may type:~~

==~~=Comments with #=~~Older releases==

==~~=Line continuation by backslash=~~How do I install or load all Octave Forge packages?==

If you really really really want to do load all packages, you can with the following:<syntaxhighlight lang=~~==Coherent syntax===~~"octave">## WARNING: loading all packages is probably not the solution you are looking for.cellfun (@(x) pkg ("load", x.name), pkg ("list"));</syntaxhighlight>

To execute a script from within Octave, just type its name without the <code>.m</code> extension. Thus, if you have a script called <code>foo.m</code>, just type <code>foo</code> from within the Octave command prompt to execute it. You have to make sure that the script is in your current working directory or in Octave's load path. Type {{manual|pwd}} to get the current working directory or type {{manual|path}} to see which paths belong to Octave's load path. The ~~unwind_protect statement ~~current working directory is ~~often used ~~referred to ~~reliably restore ~~as "." in the ~~values ~~output of ~~global variables that need to be temporarily changed~~{{manual|path}}.

<syntaxhighlight lang=~~==Built-in ODE and DAE solvers===~~"octave">run ("Script Name With Spaces.m")run ("/opt/local/foo.m")</syntaxhighlight>

An alternative is to run the script from outside Octave ~~includes LSODE and DASSL for solving systems of stiff ordinary differential and differential-algebraic equations~~by calling Octave from your operating system shell. ~~These functions are built in ~~ Unlike calling the script from inside Octave, this also allows you to pass arguments from the ~~interpreter.~~shell into the script, which the script can access using the {{manual|argv}} command:

In ~~addition to consulting Octave's source for the precise details~~a Unix environment, ~~you can read ~~if the ~~Octave manual for ~~script has a ~~complete high-level description of the algorithm that Octave uses to decide how to solve a particular linear system, e.g. how the backslash operator <tt>A\x</tt> will be interpreted. Sections ~~[http://~~www~~en.~~gnu~~wikipedia.org/~~software~~wiki/~~octave/doc/interpreter/Techniques-Used-for-Linear-Algebra~~Shebang_%28Unix%29 shebang] (e.g.~~html~~<code>#~~Techniques-Used-for-Linear-Algebra Techniques Used for Linear Algebra] and [http:~~!/usr/~~www.gnu.org/software~~bin/octave</~~doc/interpreter/Sparse-Linear-Algebra.html Linear Algebra on Sparse Matrices] from the manual describe this procedure.~~code>) and executable permissions, you can call it like any other Unix program with arguments:

==How do I set the number of displayed decimals?==

<syntaxhighlight lang="octave">>> format long>> pipi =~~How do I vary the line thickness?=~~3.14159265358979>> format short>> pipi =3.1416</syntaxhighlight>

#!/bin/awk -f

==How do I tell if a file exists?==

==How do I do X?==

=Common problems=

==~~How ~~I do ~~I get sound ~~not see any output ~~in Windows~~of my script until it has finished?== ~~See ~~By default Octave is set to pass its screen output through a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_pager pager] (usually the default pager is "less") which allows things such as navigating through the output with arrow keys or searching for text or regular expressions within the output. The pager only displays the output after it's finished receiving it, so when it is active you'll not be able to see anything until your script has terminated. To change this behavior temporarily or permanently you may want to use one of the options described [http://www.octave.org/~~octave-lists~~doc/~~archive~~interpreter/~~help~~Paging-Screen-~~octave.2003/msg01567~~Output.html ~~for a start~~in the manual].

==~~Why does Octave segfault when using "clear all;"~~When I try plotting from a script, why am I not seeing anything?==

==I have problem X using the latest Octave ~~uses the genpath function to recursively add directories to the list of directories searched for function files. Check the list of directories with the path command. If the path list is very long check your use of the genpath function.~~version==

* If you refer to the latest Mercurial revision, please specify the [https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/ChangeSetID changeset ID] not the revision number, e.g. the output of <code>hg summary</code> or <code>hg id</code>. Changeset IDs are globally unique across all repos. If your problem truly persists with the "latest version", then please [http://bugs.octave.org/ report a bug] or ask for help at[https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-octave help@octave.org]. Otherwise, don't be surprised if volunteers are less inclined to help you with a problem that only exists in an older version of Octave and is already fixed in a newer version. ==~~I ~~Why is Octave's floating-point computation wrong?== Floating-point arithmetic is an approximation '''in binary''' to arithmetic on real or complex numbers. Just like you cannot represent 1/3 exactly in decimal arithmetic (0.333333... is only a rough approximation to 1/3), you cannot ~~install ~~represent some fractions like <math>1/10</math> exactly in base 2. In binary, the representation to one tenth is <math>0.0\overline{0011}_b</math> where the bar indicates that it repeats infinitely (like how <math>1/6 = 0.1\overline{6}_d</math> in decimal). Because this infinite repetition cannot be represented exactly with a finite number of digits, rounding errors occur for values that appear to be exact in decimal but are in fact approximations in binary, such as for example how 0.3 - 0.2 - 0.1 is not equal to zero. In addition, some advanced operations are computed by approximation and are not guaranteed to be accurate, see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rounding#Table-maker.27s_dilemma Table-maker's dilemma]. Their results are system-dependent. This isn't an Octave bug. It happens with any program that uses [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_754 IEEE 754 floating-point arithmetic]. To be fair, IEEE 754 also specifies decimal floating-point arithmetic, which has never seen wide adoption. The reason why Octave and other programs using IEEE 754 binary floating-point numbers is that they are ''fast'', because they are implemented in hardware or system libraries. Unless you are using very exotic hardware, Octave will use your computer's processor for basic floating-point arithmetic. Another approach to deal with rounding errors is interval arithmetic with the [[Interval package]] or symbolic computatons with the [[Symbolic package]]. ~~Octave complains ~~ These approaches are likely to be slower, since not all operations can be performed on Hardware like pure floatin-point arithmetic. To learn more about ~~a ~~floating-point arithmetic, consult the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating-point_arithmetic Wikipedia article] or the classical reference by David Goldberg [http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19957-01/806-3568/ncg_goldberg.html What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic]. ==Missing lines when printing under Windows with OpenGL toolkit and Intel integrated GPU== Some windows users with integrated Intel GPUs have reported missing ~~mkoctfile~~lines when printing with an OpenGL toolkit like FLTK or Qt.{{bug|42534}} Users with this kind of problem should try to install/update their Intel OpenGL drivers for Windows or consider installing Mesa drivers from http://qt-project.org/wiki/Cross-compiling-Mesa-for-Windows . See also https://www.opengl.org/wiki/FAQ#Why_is_my_GL_version_only_1.4_or_lower.3F . ==Plot hangs and makes the GUI unresponsive==

=~~Porting programs from ~~Differences between Octave and Matlab ~~to Octave~~=

People often ask

<blockquote>

I wrote some code for Matlab, and I want to get it running under Octave. Is there anything I should watch out for?

</blockquote>

<blockquote>

I wrote some code in Octave, and want to share it with Matlab users. Is there anything I should watch out for?

</blockquote>

which is not quite the same thing. There are still a number of differences between Octave and Matlab, however in general differences between the two are considered as bugs. Octave might consider that the bug is in Matlab and do nothing about it, but generally functionality is almost identical. If you find ~~a ~~an important functional difference between Octave behavior and Matlab, then you should send a description of this difference (with code illustrating the difference, if possible) to http://bugs.octave.org.

Furthermore, Octave adds a few syntactical extensions to Matlab that might cause some issues when exchanging files between Matlab and Octave users~~. As both Octave and Matlab are under constant development the information in this section is subject to change at anytime~~.

is equivalent to

The main difference with Matlab is a matter of scope. While nested functions have access to the parent function's scope in Matlab, no such thing is available in Octave, due to how Octave essentially “un-nests” nested functions.

The authors of Octave consider the nested function scoping rules of Matlab to be more problems than they are worth as they introduce difficult to find bugs as inadvertently modifying a variable in a nested function that is also used in the parent is particularly easyfor those not attentive to detail.

There are a few core Matlab syntaxes that are not accepted by Octave, these being

* Some limitations on the use of function handles. The major difference is related to nested function scoping rules (as above) and their use with function handles.

* Some limitations of variable argument lists on the LHS of an expression, though the most common types are accepted.

* Matlab classdef object oriented programming is ~~not yet ~~only partially supported, ~~though work is underway and when development more on to Octave 3.5 this will be included in the development tree~~see [[classdef]] for details.

A large number of the Matlab core functions (~~ie ~~i.e. those that are in the core and not a toolbox) are implemented, and certainly all of the commonly used ones. There are a few functions that aren't implemented, usually to do with specific missing Octave functionality (GUI, DLL, Java, ActiveX, DDE, web, and serial functions). Some of the core functions have limitations that aren't in the Matlab version. For example the {{manual|sprandn }} function can not force a particular condition number for the matrix like Matlab can. Another example is that testing and the runtests function work differently in Matlab and Octave.

Matlab includes a "Just-In-Time" compiler. This compiler allows the acceleration of for-loops in Matlab to almost native performance with certain restrictions. The JIT must know the return type of all functions called in the loops and so you can't include user functions in the loop of JIT optimized loops. Octave ~~doesn't have ~~has a [[JIT|not fully functional JIT ~~and so to some might seem slower than Matlab~~compiler]]. For this reason you must [[Performance#Vectorization|vectorize your code ]] as much as possible. The MathWorks themselves have a good document discussing vectorization at http://www.mathworks.com/support/tech-notes/1100/1109.html.

On a related point, there is no Octave compiler, and so you can't convert your Octave code into a binary for additional speed or distribution~~. There have been several aborted attempts at creating an Octave compiler. Should the JIT compiler above ever be implemented, an Octave compiler should be more feasible~~.

==Block comments ~~denoted by <tt>#{</tt> and <tt>#}</tt> markers (or <tt>%{</tt> and <tt>%}</tt>) are supported by Octave with some limitations. The major limitation is that block comments are not supported within [] or {}.~~==

==Mat-File format== There are some differences in the mat v5 file format accepted by Octave. Matlab recently introduced the "-V7.3" save option which is an HDF5 format which is particularly useful for 64-bit platforms where the standard Matlab format can not correctly save variables. Octave accepts HDF5 files, but is not yet compatible with the "-v7.3" versions produced by Matlab.

Although Octave can load inline function handles saved by Matlab, it can not yet save them.

Finally, ~~Some ~~some multi-byte Unicode characters aren't yet treated in mat-files.

Octave is a community project and so the toolboxes that exist are donated by those interested in them through ~~the ~~[[Octave Forge ~~website (http://octave.sourceforge.net)~~]]. These might be lacking in certain functionality relative to the Matlab toolboxes, and might not exactly duplicate the Matlab functionality or interface.

The <~~tt~~code>&</~~tt~~code> and <~~tt~~code>|</~~tt~~code> operators in Matlab short-circuit when included in a condition (e.g. an {{Codeline|if }} or {{Codeline|while}} statement ) and not otherwise. In Octave only the <~~tt~~code>&&</~~tt~~code> and <~~tt~~code>||</~~tt~~code> short circuit. Note that this means that

and

Another case that is documented in the Matlab manuals is that

Also Matlab requires the operands of <~~tt~~code>&&</~~tt~~code> and <~~tt~~code>||</~~tt~~code> to be scalar values but Octave does not (it just applies the rule that for an operand to be considered true, every element of the object must be nonzero or logically true).

Finally, note the inconsistence of thinking of the condition of an ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|if~~</tt> ~~}} statement as being equivalent to ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|all(X(:))~~</tt> ~~}} when ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|X~~</tt> ~~}} is a matrix. This is true for all cases EXCEPT empty matrices:

However,

is not the same as

because, despite the name, the ~~<tt>~~{{manual|all~~</tt> ~~}} is really returning true if none of the elements of the matrix are zero, and since there are no elements, well, none of them are zero. This is an example of [~~http~~https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuous_truth vacuous truth]. But, somewhere along the line, someone decided that ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|if ([])~~</tt> ~~}} should be false. The Mathworks probably thought it just looks wrong to have ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|[]~~</tt> ~~}} be true in this context even if you can use logical gymnastics to convince yourself that "all" the elements of an empty matrix are nonzero. Octave however duplicates this behavior for ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|if~~</tt> ~~}} statements containing empty matrices.

Matlab's solvers as used by the operators {{manual|mldivide ~~(~~}} <code>\~~) ~~</code> and {{manual|mrdivide ~~(~~}} <code>/</~~)~~code>, use a different approach than Octave's in the case of singular, under-, or over-determined matrices. In the case of a singular matrix, Matlab returns the result given by the LU decomposition, even though the underlying solver has flagged the result as erroneous. Octave has made the choice of falling back to a minimum norm solution of matrices that have been flagged as singular which arguably is a better result for these cases.

In the case of under- or over-determined matrices, Octave continues to use a minimum norm solution, whereas Matlab uses an approach that is equivalent to

While this approach is certainly faster and uses less memory than Octave's minimum norm approach, this approach seems to be inferior in other ways.

A numerical question arises: how big can the null space component become, relative to the minimum-norm solution? Can it be nicely bounded, or can it be arbitrarily big? Consider this example: <syntaxhighlight lang="Octave">m = 10;n = 10000;A = ones (m, n) + 1e-6 * randn (m, n);b = ones (m, 1) + 1e-6 * randn (m, 1);norm (A \ b)</syntaxhighlight>

Code blocks like if, for, while, etc can be terminated with block specific terminations like endif. ~~Matlab ~~MATLAB doesn't have this and all blocks must be terminated with end.

Octave has a lisp-like ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|unwind_protect~~</tt> ~~}} block that allows blocks of code that terminate in an error to ensure that the variables that are touched are restored. You can do something similar with try/catch combined with ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|rethrow (lasterror ())~~</tt> ~~}} in Matlab, however rethrow and lasterror are only available in Octave 2.9.10 and later. ~~Matlab ~~MATLAB 2008a also introduced ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|OnCleanUp~~</tt> ~~}} that is similar to ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|unwind_protect~~</tt>~~}}, except that the object created by this function has to be explicitly cleared in order for the cleanup code to run.

Note that using try/catch combined with ~~<tt>~~{{Codeline|rethrow (lasterror ())~~</tt> can not ~~}} cannot guarantee that global variables will be correctly reset, as it won't catch user interrupts with Ctrl-C. For example

compared to

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