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[https://www.mercurial-scm.org Mercurial] (sometimes referred to as {{codeline|hg}}) is the source code management system used for Octave development.
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Everybody is free to '''run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve'''<ref>https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.en.html</ref> Octave's source code, given in the main repository at https://www.octave.org/hg/octave.  Use Mercurial to get the latest version of Octave <pre>hg clone https://www.octave.org/hg/octave</pre>
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{{Note|[https://tortoisehg.bitbucket.io/ TortoiseHg] is a GUI for Mercurial and it is especially recommended for users doing their first steps with source code management systems.  Linux, macOS, and MS Windows are supported.}}
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== Creating and submitting patches (changesets) ==
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If you want to share your modifications, for example to fix a nasty '''bug #42424''', you cannot just submit your changes to Octave's main repository.  You have to generate a '''patch (or changeset)''' so other Octave developers can include them into Octave's source code.
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# Get the latest version of Octave (or some Octave package) <pre>hg clone https://www.octave.org/hg/octave</pre> or when already cloned <pre>hg pull && hg update</pre>
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# Make your changes (fix bug #42424) and save them.  '''Make sure that your changes don't introduce new bugs!'''  Thus it is recommended to [[Building | build Octave]] and to [[Tests | run Octave's test suite]] before proceeding.<br>{{Warning|Please follow the [[Contribution guidelines]] for C/C++ or Octave code files!}}
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# Commit your changes <pre>hg commit</pre> Mercurial will open your default editor<ref>To set your default Mercurial editor, read https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/editor .</ref> and ask you for a commit message.  Please follow the [[commit message guidelines]], e.g. <syntaxhighlight lang="text">help.m: Display relevant topics first (bug #42424)
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* scripts/help/help.m: Describe what you changed to display relevant topics
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  first.  The maximal line width is 80 characters.</syntaxhighlight>
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# Export the changes <pre>hg export -r tip -o bug42424.patch</pre> The final patch for submission will look like this {{file|bug42424.patch|<syntaxhighlight lang="diff"># HG changeset patch
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# User Awesome Hacker <awesome@hacker.com>
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# Date 1591780091 -32400
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#      Wed Jun 10 18:08:11 2020 +0100
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# Node ID 68c698c4f2fd98bf2d48234bd1da99e91763114f
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# Parent  f5c9bb5955e7c9fddef5c3c3f115201e11b43b79
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help.m: Display relevant topics first (bug #42424)
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* scripts/help/help.m: Describe what you changed to display relevant topics
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  first.  The maximal line width is 80 characters.
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diff -r f5c9bb5955e7 -r 68c698c4f2fd scripts/help/help.m
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--- a/scripts/help/help.m Tue Jun 09 14:11:13 2020 -0700
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+++ b/scripts/help/help.m Wed Jun 10 18:08:11 2020 +0900
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@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ function retval = help (name)
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    endif
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    ## Get help text
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-    [text, format] = get_help_text (name);
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+    [text, format] = get_better_help_text (name);
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    ## Take action depending on help text format
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    switch (lower (format))
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</syntaxhighlight>}}
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# Upload {{Path|bug42424.patch}} to the [https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=octave bug] or [https://savannah.gnu.org/patch/?group=octave patch] tracker. If your patch file is larger than the upload limit, you can compress it before uploading. Please use a free format!
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== Mercurial Tips for SoC students ==
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This section is meant to provide tips for [[Summer of Code]] students working on new Octave features.
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Students should publish their work as it progresses in a public repository. In this section we use for example <code>public.server.org/octave</code>.
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=== Using bookmarks ===
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[https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/Bookmarks Bookmarks] are useful for identifying a series of commits.  They are a "lightweight" solution to [https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/NamedBranches named branches], which are not automatically updated for example.  To create a bookmark <code>my-gsoc</code> use
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<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
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hg clone https://www.octave.org/hg/octave
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hg bookmark my-gsoc
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</syntaxhighlight>
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To make the bookmark visible in the public repository use
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<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
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hg push --bookmark ssh://student@public.server.org/octave
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</syntaxhighlight>
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=== Staying up-to-date with the main repository ===
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Octave development does not stand still while the students development proceeds.  Octave's main repository gets updated, too.  The following commands can be used to get these updated to the students clone of the main repository:
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<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
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hg pull https://www.octave.org/hg/octave  # Get latest remote "tip"
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hg update -r my-gsoc                      # Activate bookmark "my-gsoc"
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hg merge tip                              # Merge  "tip" into "my-gsoc"
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hg commit -m "maint: merge default to my-gsoc"
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hg push ssh://student@public.server.org/octave
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</syntaxhighlight>
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=== Preparing for code reviews ===
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At the time of the mid-term or final review (or whenever the mentor requires it) students should prepare their code for review and possibly inclusion into the main repository.
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# Create a full log of changes <pre>hg log --template=changelog --no-merges --user student-name</pre> If students have been following the [[Commit message guidelines]] the output is a good starting point for the commit message in the next step.  Some manual post-processing might be necessary:
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#* Each touched file should appear only once.
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#* Do not mention backed-out commits.
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# Prepare a singe patch (changeset) including all code that should be submitted for review <syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
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hg pull https://www.octave.org/hg/octave  # Get remote "tip" and "@"
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hg update -r @                            # Activate    bookmark "@"
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hg merge my-gsoc                          # Merge "my-gsoc" into "@"
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hg commit
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hg export -r tip -o mid-term-review.patch
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</syntaxhighlight> The file {{Path|mid-term-review.patch}} can uploaded to the [https://savannah.gnu.org/patch/?group=octave patch tracker]. <br/> Finally, there is a subtle difference between <code>"tip"</code>, which is a reference to the (local or remote) changeset added to the repository most recently and the bookmark <code>"@"</code> used by the Octave developers to point to the latest remote changeset.  Often both refer to the very same changeset and they can used interchangeably.
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== Example Mercurial configuration ==
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Place the following file in your home directory, e.g. {{Path|/home/username/.hgrc}}.
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{{File|.hgrc|<syntaxhighlight lang="ini">
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[ui]
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username = Your Name <your@email>
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[extensions]
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color =
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histedit =
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pager =
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rebase =
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strip =
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[pager]
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pager = LESS='FSRX' less
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attend = help, annotate, cat, diff, export, glog, log, outgoing, incoming
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[diff]
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showfunc = True
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[color]
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mode = terminfo
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## Custom colors
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color.gray = 244
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color.orange = 202
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color.lightyellow = 191
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color.darkorange = 220
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color.brightyellow = 226
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status.modified = magenta bold
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status.added = green bold
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status.removed = red bold
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status.deleted = cyan bold
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status.unknown = gray bold
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status.ignored = gray bold
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## Colors for each label
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log.branch = cyan
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log.summary = lightyellow
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log.description = lightyellow
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log.bookmark = green
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log.tag = darkorange
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log.graph = blue
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## Colors for each phase
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changeset.secret = blue bold
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changeset.draft  = red bold
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changeset.public = orange
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desc.here = bold blue_background
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[bookmarks]
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track.current = True
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[alias]
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glog = log --graph
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top = log --graph -l
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</syntaxhighlight>}}
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== Footnotes ==
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<references/>
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== External links ==
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* https://hginit.com/ -- Mercurial tutorial
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* https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/Tutorial -- Mercurial tutorial
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* https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/QuickStart -- Mercurial quick start
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* https://tortoisehg.bitbucket.io/ -- TortoiseHg is a GUI for Mercurial (Linux, macOS, MS Windows)
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[[Category:Development]]
 

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