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: '' This article provides general information about building GNU Octave from source.''
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:''This article provides general information about '''building GNU Octave''' from source (on Unix-like systems).''
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:*''If you just want to '''install GNU Octave''', see [[:Category:Installation]].''
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:*''For '''MS Windows''', read [[Building on Microsoft Windows]] and [[Windows Installer]].''
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:*''For '''macOS''', read [[Octave for macOS]].''
    
== General steps ==
 
== General steps ==
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# Install all [[#Dependencies|build dependencies]] (see below).
 
# Install all [[#Dependencies|build dependencies]] (see below).
 
# Getting the Octave sources ...
 
# Getting the Octave sources ...
#* ... from the development repository
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#* ... from the development repository (requires also [https://www.mercurial-scm.org/ Mercurial])
 
<div style="margin-left:5em;">
 
<div style="margin-left:5em;">
 
  hg clone https://www.octave.org/hg/octave && \
 
  hg clone https://www.octave.org/hg/octave && \
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  mkdir .build                            && \
 
  mkdir .build                            && \
 
  cd    .build                            && \
 
  cd    .build                            && \
  ./../configure --prefix=$HOME/my_octave && \ <ref><code>--prefix</code> determines the installation location.</ref>
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  ./../configure --prefix=$HOME/my_octave && \ <ref><code>--prefix</code> determines the installation location, see the [[#Install Octave in home directory|Tweaks section]] for details. For more information about configuration options, type <code>./../configure --help</code>.</ref>
 
  make -j2                                && \ <ref>Depending on your system and processor count, use a larger number of parallel jobs, e.g. <code>-j8</code>.</ref>
 
  make -j2                                && \ <ref>Depending on your system and processor count, use a larger number of parallel jobs, e.g. <code>-j8</code>.</ref>
 
  make check                              && \
 
  make check                              && \
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== Dependencies ==
 
== Dependencies ==
   −
Most of the dependencies given in this section can be very conveniently installed on many [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]] systems.  Please read the respective wiki page for your distribution on the [[Octave for GNU/Linux]] page.
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Most of the dependencies given in this section can be very conveniently installed on many [[Octave for GNU/Linux|GNU/Linux]] systems.
   −
On [[Octave for Microsoft Windows|MS Windows]] and [[Octave for macOS|macOS]] systems the generic Octave build process described on this page needs some more effort to fulfill the described build dependencies.  Please read [[Octave for Microsoft Windows]] and [[Octave for macOS]] for information how to build Octave for the respective systems.
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{{Note|For a quick way to install the required dependencies, see:
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* [[Octave for Debian systems#The right way|Debian / Ubuntu]]
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* [[Octave for Arch Linux|Arch Linux]]
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* [[Octave for Red Hat Linux systems|Fedora / RedHat / CentOS]]}}
    
Dependencies marked with <span style="background:lightgreen">green background</span> are '''required''' for building Octave.  All other tools and libraries are recommended/optional, but very useful features (like the GUI, plotting, etc.) are likely to be disabled.
 
Dependencies marked with <span style="background:lightgreen">green background</span> are '''required''' for building Octave.  All other tools and libraries are recommended/optional, but very useful features (like the GUI, plotting, etc.) are likely to be disabled.
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== Tweaks ==
 
== Tweaks ==
   −
Installing in your home directory is a method to install GNU Octave next to your repository installation at the same time. This works with every Linux distribution and is especially for old Ubuntu LTS versions very useful!
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=== Install Octave in home directory ===
 
  −
One advantage is that you do not clutter your system by running ''sudo make install''.
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Another advantage is that you can keep your Octave installation that is provided by your distribution.
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  −
=== Create a smart .bashrc entry ===
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echo "alias octave38='~/.octave38/bin/octave'" >> ~/.bashrc
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. ~/.bashrc # this will update your bashrc without doing logout and login!
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If you simply enter ''octave'', you'll start your repository installation provided by your distribution. But when you enter ''octave38'', you'll start your new snappy octave version installed to your home directory.
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     −
=== Managing your own program hierarchy (optional) ===
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To install multiple versions of GNU Octave on one system, it is recommended to use the <code>--prefix</code> option of the <code>configure</code> script.  With this option one can determine a custom installation directory, preferably within your user's home directory, to avoid elevated installation privileges.  One does not "clutter" the system by running <code>sudo make install</code> and the custom build Octave can coexist with, for example, your Linux distribution installation of Octave.
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If you intend to compile for yourself a lot of utilities, you may use a specific "usr" hierachy into your own dir (Linux from scratch way). Go back to step 2, and configure octave as:
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In order to start the custom build of Octave almost as convenient as the Linux distribution installation of Octave, one can create an alias within {{Path|.bashrc}}:
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  ./configure --prefix=${HOME}/usr
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  echo "alias myoctave='$HOME/my_octave/bin/octave'" >> ~/.bashrc
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The other steps (make; make install) do not change. In order to use your own hierachy, you should set a few environment variables in your .profile:
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Then update your {{Path|.bashrc}} without doing logout and login:
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  # set LD_LIBRARY_PATH if not set
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  source $HOME/.bashrc
  (echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH | grep -q lib) || export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="/usr/local/lib:$HOME/usr/lib:$HOME/usr/local/lib"
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  # set PATH so it includes user's private bin if it exists
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  if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then
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        (echo $PATH | grep -q $HOME/usr/bin) || export PATH="$HOME/bin:$HOME/usr/bin:$HOME/usr/local/bin:$PATH"
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  fi
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  # set MANPATH so it includes user's private bin if it exists
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  if [ -d "$HOME/usr/share/man" ] ; then
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    (echo $MANPATH | grep -q $HOME/usr/share/man) || export MANPATH="$HOME/usr/local/share/man:$HOME/usr/share/man:`manpath -q`"
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  fi
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  if [ -d "$HOME/usr/share/info" ]; then
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    export INFOPATH="$INFOPATH:$HOME/usr/share/info"
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  fi
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  if [ -d "$HOME/usr/lib/python" ]; then
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    (echo $PYTHONPATH | grep -q $HOME/usr/lib/python) || export PYTHONPATH="$HOME/usr/local/lib/python:$HOME/usr/lib/python"
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  fi
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  if [ -d "$HOME/usr/lib/pkgconfig" ]; then
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    (echo $PKG_CONFIG_PATH | grep -q $HOME/usr/lib/pkgconfig) || export PKG_CONFIG_PATH="$HOME/usr/lib/pkgconfig"
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  fi
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This way, most ordinary commands like "man octave", "info octave", or launching octave itself, will first explore your own hierachy.
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If you simply enter <code>octave</code>, you'll start your Linux distribution installation of Octave. But when you enter <code>myoctave</code>, you'll start your custom build of Octave inside your home directory.
    
=== Uninstall ===
 
=== Uninstall ===
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In any case, don't forget to remove any created ''alias'' entries in {{Path|~/.bashrc}}.
 
In any case, don't forget to remove any created ''alias'' entries in {{Path|~/.bashrc}}.
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=== Large array support ===
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: ''Main article: [[Enable large arrays: Build octave such that it can use arrays larger than 2Gb.]]''
    
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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* [https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/tip/README <code>README</code>] and [https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/tip/etc/HACKING.md <code>/etc/HACKING.md</code>] in the development repository.  
 
* [https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/tip/README <code>README</code>] and [https://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/tip/etc/HACKING.md <code>/etc/HACKING.md</code>] in the development repository.  
 
* https://octave.org/doc/interpreter/Installation.html
 
* https://octave.org/doc/interpreter/Installation.html
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* [[MXE]] -- a more customized Octave build including many self-compiled tools.
    
== Footnotes ==
 
== Footnotes ==

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